Palestinian workers in Israel's illegal settlements: Who profits?
Palestinian, Israeli and international protesters break into Whoprofits.org.supermarket in the Shaar Binyamin settlement near Jerusalem, to protest against the Israeli occupation and call for a boycott of Israeli settlements, October 2012. Photograph by Yotam Ronen, ActiveStills/
January 2013 -- Whoprofits.org -- In order to work in Israel's settlements, Palestinians must obtain work permits from the Israeli Civil Administration, which also entails the approval of the Israeli internal security service (the Shin Bet). This permit can be annulled at any time, especially when workers demand their rights or try to unionise, or if they (or one of their family members) engage in any kind of political activity. This situation exposes Palestinian workers to extortion by the Israeli internal security service.
Other gross violations of labor rights in the West Bank are also possible because the Israeli labour regulations, which apply to these businesses, are rarely enforced in the Occupied Territories, and the workers cannot demand these rights for fear of losing their permits. Furthermore, Israeli employers frequently hire workers through Palestinian labour contractors, which render the workers more vulnerable to rights violations.
A business that operates illegitimately cannot demand legitimacy on behalf of the workers and at their expense. The case of sweatshops is a useful example for illegitimate corporate activity that cannot be justified by providing work for those in need. As is the case with settlement companies, sweatshop operators manufacture their products in low-wage societies, seeking lower production costs.
Israeli employers of Palestinians in settlements have a clear economic interest in maintaining the occupation of Palestinian land and the exploitation of resources. Companies establish factories in the occupied West Bank mainly in order to enjoy the economic benefits provided by the Israeli government, as well as to have access to cheap Palestinian labour and the indirect benefits of operating in industrial zones with low safety and environmental standards and with very lax monitoring and enforcement.
According to a study conducted by Dr Majid Sbeih from Al-Quds University for the Democracy and Workers’ Rights Center in Palestine, 82% of Palestinian workers have the desire and willingness to leave their jobs in the settlements, provided that a suitable alternative is available. However, suitable alternatives will not be found as long as the Palestinian economy is under occupation.
Settlement companies are responsible for their conduct and should be held accountable. These employers cannot claim to represent the interests and the position of Palestinian workers in any way. In fact, all of the Palestinian trade unions and labour unions and almost all Palestinian civil society organisations, including political parties, support the Palestinian call for boycott, divestment and sanctions (BDS) as articulated by the BDS National Committee (BNC).
The political reality of the occupation does not allow Palestinian workers to make a free and informed choice regarding their livelihoods. Most Palestinians are compelled to work in settlements, since their economy is in ruins after 45 years of Israeli military occupation.
The document that manifested the structural tourniquets imposed on the Palestinian economy is the Paris Protocol –- the economic annex to the Oslo Accords. The Paris Protocol places Israel and the occupied Palestinian territories under a joint taxation envelope, the same currency (new Israeli shekel), and imposes severe restrictions on manufacturing, exporting and importing goods to and from the Occupied Territories. This trade agreement does not truly promote free trade, but instead seeks to protect Israeli and multinational corporations from competition by local industries. Moreover, this situation blocks the development of an independent Palestinian economy and keeps it as a captive market for Israeli and international companies.
Palestinian workers lost their land and livelihood to the Israeli occupation. Eleven per cent of Palestinian workers in settlements work on confiscated lands originally owned by their families or one of their relatives. Providing Palestinians with jobs on their own stolen land is another humiliating insult that they are forced to bear in order to provide for their families. The settlement industry's revenues are a direct result of shameless exploitation of Palestinian land, labor and resources. The industry's existence on occupied land enables, deepens and perpetuates the Israeli occupation.
Download the full position paper here or read on screen below.