South Korea: Mass movement stops the neoliberal bulldozer

By Christopher Kerr

July 12, 2008, Seoul -- The neo-conservative regime of President Lee Myungbak has been humbled by the spontaneous emergence of a mass movement — sparked by female middle and high school students. This movement has resulted in the largest and longest sustained demonstrations since the fall of the military dictatorship. 

The mass protests have been primarily against the imposed resumption of the importation of US beef but have, in the course of their development, tapped into latent anger against the implementation neoliberal policies.

In April, Lee, before meeting US President George Bush at his Texas ranch, agreed to lift all existing bans on US beef imposed in 2003 after a case of mad cow disease was detected.

The move was unpopular due to the perceived scientific risks that it posed to the Korean population and because the Korean market already substituted for US beef by consuming its own produce along with Australian imports.

It is also a symbol of class division, with the Korean elite who are vocal supporters importing US beef but don’t need to consume it, as they are wealthy enough to eat the much preferred but more expensive domestically produced beef. The rest of the population will be forced to eat US beef.

The Korean market is of high importance to US beef producers (the US’s third-largest market before the ban) and the ban’s lifting has been tied by the Democrat-controlled Congress as a precondition for ratification of the Korea-US Free Trade Agreement (FTA) already been signed by both governments.

Spontaneous mass movement

In opposition to the agreement, a relatively small group of female middle and high school students, who organised through the internet, organised a daily candlelight vigil outside City Hall.

These students also protested against proposed educational reforms designed to foster greater competition among already exhausted school students, as well as strengthening the elite schools. (A common day for an average Korean high school student requires a study schedule of 7am-1am.) However, the students kept their focus on the issue of US beef.

These protests drew media attention as well as a large amount of sympathy from Korean society. Thus, in the world’s leading internet-infrastructure nation, what became known as a “netizens” movement spontaneously emerged. The open space provided by the internet drew out an enormous amount of criticism about the government’s policies as well as discussion on how to oppose them.

The “netizens” movement was able to draw in large amounts of people from broader layers of society into the protests.

The protests grew in number and climaxed on June 10 — the 21st anniversary of the demonstrations that led to the overthrow of the military dictatorship — with half a million demonstrators.

The demonstrations were more festive and less militant than those of the 1980s and ’90s. Instead of including just organised labour, students and the social movements, these candle-light vigils were filled with people from all ages and backgrounds.

Not only was this new movement not led by the more traditional protest leaders, it acted to revitalise them after demoralisation at losing the battle against the FTA, as well as the emergence of the current right-wing regime.

However, it would be wrong to characterise the candle-light vigil demonstrations simply as a single-issue movement. The protests have been both heterogeneous and extremely fluid in their dynamics. Despite strong debate and the existence of cultural differences, there has been a deepening convergence between old activists and the new “netizen” forces.

As the demonstrations grew, so did the issues taken up by participants. Demonstrators began producing placards and chanting slogans that also focused on Lee’s subservience to the US, as well as his program of privatising health, education, water and electricity.

Bulldozer crashes

Lee’s empty but popular electoral slogans have dissipated as his specific policies came under increasing scrutiny. The demonstrations have caused Lee’s support to crash from 75% in February to 17% in June. Some internal government polls even put his popularity at 7%.

The government has gone into emergency mode and attempted a number of symbolic gestures to rebuild support. It first attempted a mass resignation of all ministers involved in the signing the accord. It sent negotiators to the US to attempt to stop imports of beef more than 30 months old.

Lee, who has built a reputation as a strong-armed leader who takes pride in ignoring opposition and “getting things done” (referred to in the Korean media as “the bulldozer”) was humbled into making two separate nationally televised apologies, where he expressed remorse for not listening to the concerns of the Korean people and promised to change.

However, Congress did not back down and after much wrangling merely offered a temporary voluntary agreement by US farmers not to export beef over 30 months old without writing this condition into the accord.

The mass movement didn’t accept this concession and continued its protests, causing a drastic change in the government’s response. Lee proclaimed all that could be achieved had been done and that all demonstrations needed to cease immediately as it was hurting the economy and paralysing society.

Initially dismissive then apologetic towards the protests, the government made a strategic decision to crush it with force. Starting from late June, the government directed police to violently repress the protests, resulting in hundreds being arrested and injured.

However, the militant traditions of the Korean student and labour movement allowed the movement to stiffen its resistance to police violence and respond in kind. The corporate media ignored police provocations and focused on the demonstrators removing police barricades and confronting the riot police head on.

This allowed the government to isolate the movement and increase the violence against it — drawing the most militant sectors into an escalation of violent confrontations, while isolating the movement through the mass media.

This tactic worked to an extent with polls showing that while people opposed the imports of US beef they also wanted to see the demonstrations stop if they became too violent.

But another unforeseen twist occurred that again changed the balance of forces. Just when it appeared the movement was on a downturn, a group of well-known progressive Catholic priests that had played an important role against the military dictatorship intervened — inserting themselves as a physical buffer between demonstrators and police. Supporting the movement’s demands, the priests also called for the resignation of the police chief.

This inspired progressive Protestant priests to do the same, followed by Buddhist monks (who are under attack from the Christian fundamentalist Lee). This has given physical breathing space to demonstrators as well as revitalised public support. The latest mobilisation drew hundreds of thousands again, with many fearing that Lee will return to the authoritarian style of his ideological predecessors during the military dictatorship era.

The union movement has also actively participated. At one point, the government ordered the national distribution of US beef that had accumulated in various ports, but waterfront workers who refused. In early July, around 45,000 workers from Lee’s old company Hyundai, went on a two hour walkout in solidarity with the protesters.

Lee’s position is becoming increasingly difficult. He was elected in a landslide victory last year with a historically low voter turn-out. His neoliberal policies were not show cased, with grand promises combining with empty slogans.

His main electoral slogan was “Lee Myungbak will definitely revive the economy”, with the promise being that he will achieve 6% economic growth in his first year while, in the long term, doubling the average income of the Korean people.

The economic growth of the previous government came at the expense of a major internal redistribution of wealth and a large social polarisation that created a large sense of economic insecurity for the working- and increasingly squeezed middle-classes.

Neoliberal agenda

The central piece to Lee’s initial program to revitalise economic growth was the FTA with the US. The Korean ruling elite is haunted by the spectre of Chinese capitalism and fears its former economic success, based on a model of autonomous state-capitalist export-oriented development is now being usurped by the rise of China — forcing it create a new niche in the world market through information technology and other services.

The FTA agreement will give big advantages to the giant Korean conglomerates (known as Chaebol), but spell disaster for many other aspects of the economy that can’t compete with US business.

Unlike the two previous administrations, which had many cadres recruited out of the democracy movement, Lee has surrounded himself with big business spokespeople and his fundamentalist Protestant church. Where as the previous two regimes were able to use their organic links to the democratic movement to co-opt and demobilise opposition, Lee enjoys no such capacity.

Furthermore, the current mass opposition hasn’t emerged from the established movements but from previously inactive sectors, making it more difficult to control.

The FTA cannot be implemented without the prior implementation of the beef agreement. And if Congress doesn’t implement it before the end of the Bush administration, it is likely that it will not get implemented at all. The next likley US president, Barack Obama, has proclaimed that it’s too favorable to Korean industrialists and will need to be reviewed.

Consequently, it is imperative for Lee to implement the beef accord. But it has come at the cost of losing all political momentum for future privatisation projects, as well as causing disenchantment with his administration.

It has also led to a revitalisation of the activist movements, which now have much greater confidence to resist Lee’s neoliberal agenda. It has also led to a new form of activism that has transcended the previous traditions, which were born as a product of having to work underground but were less effective in building the movement under new conditions.

The emergence of a mass movement has already begun to scare away foreign investment and the economic paralysis has contributed to a significant increase in inflation, with all economic factors doing worse than under the previous government.

With no central leadership, it’s difficult to gauge the movement’s direction — even in the short term. The collapse of support for Lee has not translated into a significant increase in support for the traditional opposition political parties.

What is certain is that this unpredictable upsurge has fractured the seemingly monolithic aura of Lee and his neoliberal bulldozer.

[A longer version can be found at]

From Green Left Weekly issue #758 16 July 2008.


Urgent appeal for solidarity with the South Korean candle light movement
26 July 2008

On July 24, the Lee Myung-bak (LMB) government issued arrest warrants against the leadership of the KCTU trade union center. This is only one of many attacks against the newly resurrected people’s power in South Korea, sparked by the uproar over the US beef import.

The urgent appeal for action we are reproducing below has been published by the coalition against mad cow disease, a coalition of more than 1,700 organizations involved in the candle light movement. All responses and inquries should be sent to

Urgent Appeal for Action

Greetings of international solidarity!

Staring May 2, 2008, South Korean people took to the streets holding candle lights in protest to various policies (import of US beefs in danger of being infected with mad cow disease, privatizations of public broadcasting, health, and public corporations, and the grand-canal project) put forth by the Lee Myung-bak (LMB) government.

The protesters came from all walks of life including elementary school students to 80 years old seniors, ordinary working people to opposition parties National Assembly representatives. More than a million people just in the greater Seoul area alone gathered on June 10 for a peaceful candle light protest.

However, the LMB government responded with force repressing the peaceful candle light protests. It discharged fire extinguisher and water cannon, wielded shields and batons, and crushed the people with military boots. Police Commissioner Eo Cheong-soo is leading what he proclaimed in the mainstream media “the real 80s military dictator style” violent repression.

The South Korean police arrested an 81 years old man and a 12 years old elementary school student. They lashed out shields and batons to parliamentarians, human rights monitor groups, medical volunteers, and journalists. They even discharged fire extinguisher directly at the mothers with babies in strollers and stuck an opposition party National Assemblyman with a baton. At one time, a video of policemen violently kicking the head and body of a female college student who was down on the ground was released in the media and met by a public outcry.

On June 29, the Lee Myung-bak government completely closed off the assembly venue. The police used hundreds of buses to surround the Seoul City Hall and the plaza, the main gathering point of the candle light protests. This is clearly a serious infringement on the basic democratic rights of assembly and protest. In the last two months, the police arrested more than 1,000 people. They were all ordinary citizens who participated in a peaceful candle light march.

The LMB government is now repressing the coalition against mad cow disease which had been leading the candle light protests. The coalition consists of more than 1,700 civic groups, political parties, trade unions, and social movement organizations. The LMB government is currently detaining 3 members of the coalition: Ahn Jin-geol, Yoon Hui-suk, and Hwang Sun-won. It also issued arrest warrants to the leading members of the coalition (See below for the list of names). They are currently taking refugee at Jogye Temple located in downtown Seoul.

On July 24 the LMB government issued arrest warrants to the executive leaders of the Korean Confederation of Trade Unions (KCTU): Chairperson Lee Seok-haeng, Vice-Chairperson Jin Yeong-ok, and Executive Director Lee Yong-sik. The police has surrounded the building where the main office of the KCTU is located ready to move in and arrest the leaders.

The repression also extends to the trade unions that struck in support of the candle light protests. The LMB government issued arrest warrants to Chairperson Jeong Gap-deuk and First Vice-Chairperson Nam Teak-gyu of the Metal workers Union, Chairperson Yoon Hae-mo of the Hyundai Auto Workers Branch of the Metal Workers Union, and 6 other trade union officials. It plans to issue more arrest warrants and detain more members of the coalition and trade union activists. It is also issuing arrest warrants to ordinary protesters.

President Lee Myung-bak and Police Commissioner Eo Cheong-su are trying to go against democracy and to push back the time to that of the military dictatorship.

The candle light movement of South Korea urgently appeals for international solidarity to defend the democratic rights of assembly, protest, and expression against the violent repression of the LMB government. In addition, we strongly urge everyone to voice their protests in the strongest terms possible against the detaining and issuing arrest warrants to protesters.

We thank you in advance for your solidarity.

Coalition against mad cow disease (

The list of names with arrested warrants

Lee Seok-haeng, Chairperson, KCTU

Jin Yeong-ok, Vice-Chairperson, KCTU

Lee Yong-sik, Executive Director, KCTU

Bak Won-seok, Joint Director of the Field Office of the Coalition

Han Yong-jin, Joint Director of the Field Office of the Coalition

Kim Dong-gyu, Director of the Organizational Team

Kim Kwang-il, Director of the March Team, All Together Steer Committee member

Baek Eun-jong, Vice-Representative, Anti-Lee Myung-bak Internet Café

Baek Seong-gyun, Representative,

Kwon Hye-jin, Director of Education Movement Headquarters of the Young Korean Academy


Ahn Jin-geol, Director of Organizational Team

Yoon Hui-suk, Volunteer Staff

Hwang Sun-won, Volunteer Staff

What you can do:

1. Write protest letters to President Lee Myung-bak and Police Commissioner Eo Cheong-su.

Use a sample letter of protest below or write your own and send them to the following addresses.

President Lee Myung-bak
Office of the President
1 Cheongwadae-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-820, South Korea
FAX: +82-2-770-4735

Police Commissioner Eo Cheong-soo
Korean National Police Agency
Euijoo-ro 91 (Migeun-dong 209)
Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-704, South Korea

Please send copies to

2. Write solidarity messages and send to

3. You are welcome to organize your own action or protest in solidarity with the candle light movement in your local areas such as protesting or having a press conference in front of the Korean embassy or consulate office. Please send a report to

A sample letter of protest

In the last two months, the Lee Myung-bak government arrested more than 1,000 persons and is threatening the people by violently repressing the demonstrators in the streets. The violent repression against the peaceful candle light protests that are taking place in South Korea is a serious infringement on people’s democratic rights including the rights of assembly and protest, and freedom of speech. We are deeply concerned of the seriousness of the situation.

There is no justification whatsoever in arresting and issuing arrest warrants to the leading members of the coalition against the mad cow disease. We intend to inform the world of the current situation and protest in the strongest terms possible in cooperation with South Korean organizations in defense of the coalition.

We demand the followings to the Lee Myung-bak government:

1. The LMB government must immediately stop the violent repression of the peaceful protests.

2. The LMB government must immediately release the detainees and call off the arrest warrants.

3. The LMB government must swiftly compensate any loss or damage incurred by the victims including the wounded.

4. The LMB government must guarantee fully the rights of peaceful assembly and protest.

August 11, 2008

His Excellency Lee Myung-bak

President, Republic of Korea
Blue House
Seoul , South Korea

Filipino workers support the call to stop trade union repression in South Korea


The Partido ng Manggagawa (Labor Party-Philippines) expresses its solidarity with the South Korean workers who are now the subject of relentless attack from the Lee Myung-bak government. 


In particular, we are deeply concerned about the conditions of the top leadership of Korean Confederation of Trade Unions (KCTU) and its affiliates who already were illegally arrested and for those who are still subject of police manhunt.  We firmly believe that the Lee Myung-bak government had grossly violated their basic human and trade union rights.


We likewise believe that the South Korean government cannot simply resort to such brutal actions against the KCTU without circumventing its own laws and disregarding international covenants on labor rights and standards.  And that was done by declaring KCTU's legitimate strike against the April 18 Protocol on US beef importation and other  trade union issues 'illegal', thus giving the government the legal cover to launch a crackdown on trade unions opposed to that policy. 


Fighting against what workers believed are policies inimical to its socio-economic and occupational interests – as in this case the issues of food safety and health hazards and trade union rights -- can always be valid unless otherwise declared by the government as nonsensical demands.  In fact, it was with great pride that Korean workers stood up against the proposed US-Korea FTA and other policies which they believe endanger their rights, safety, well-being, and their future. 


On this ground, we would like to convey this message to the Korean government:  that the international labor movement would always support and likewise assert the validity and legitimacy of that kind of action by our fellow workers in Korea .  May we humbly remind the government that the right to strike and dissent is a universal human right.


Accordingly, we appeal on the Lee Myung-bak government to stop the repression against the KCTU and its affiliates' leadership by unconditionally releasing those who were already arrested and detained and recalling all arrest warrants issued against trade union leaders. 


We also call on the South Korean government to respect fundamental trade union rights, including the right to strike on political matters involving national policies that may affect the socio-economic well-being of Korean workers and that it fully guarantees freedom of assembly and people's right to dissent.


The existence of a vibrant trade union movement in South Korea is a towering symbol and a reminder that indeed, formal democracy exist in this country.  Without it, or placing it under severe state repression, would bring South Korea 's image back to its dark past when it was still under the state of iron rule. 


We will closely monitor the government actions in South Korea while assuring our fellow workers there that Filipino workers are solidly behind their cause. ##






Renato B. Magtubo

Chairperson, Partido ng Manggagawa (Labor Party-Philippines)

Former Party-List Representative, Philippine Congress




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