The following documents were also adopted by the World
People’s Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth on April 22, 2010, in
Bolivia. The Bolivian government will submit them to the United Nations
for consideration. The main document, the People's Agreement, is available HERE.
For more coverage of the historic conference, click HERE.
They are: 1. The Universal Declaration of the Rights of Mother Earth; 2. Shared Visions document; 3. Structural causes; 4. Referendum on climate change; 5. Document of the Working Group on Agriculture and Food Sovereignty; 6. Document of the Working Group on Climate Debt; 7. Document of the Working Group on Climate Finance; 8. Indigenous Peoples' Declaration; 9. International Tribunal of Climate and Environmental Justice working group; 10. Dangers of the carbon market; 11. Working Group
No. 10 on the Kyoto Protocol and greenhouse gas emissions
reduction; 12. Working Group 13: Intercultural dialogue knowledge sharing, knowledge and technology; 13. Final conclusions of Working Group 2: Harmony with Nature to Live Well; 14. Working Group 6: Climate Change and Migration; 15. Working Group 14: Forests; 16. Working Group 11: Adaptation -- Confronting Climate Change; 17. Strategies of Action; NEW: 18. Declaration of the "unofficial" "Working Group 18. [More will be posted as they become available.]
1. Proposed Universal Declaration of the Rights of Mother Earth
We, the peoples and nations of Earth:
considering that we are all part of
Mother Earth, an indivisible, living community of interrelated and
interdependent beings with a common destiny;
gratefully acknowledging that Mother
Earth is the source of life, nourishment and learning and provides
everything we need to live well;
recognizing that the capitalist system
and all forms of depredation, exploitation, abuse and contamination have
caused great destruction, degradation and disruption of Mother Earth,
putting life as we know it today at risk through phenomena such as
convinced that in an interdependent
living community it is not possible to recognize the rights of only
human beings without causing an imbalance within Mother Earth;
affirming that to guarantee human rights
it is necessary to recognize and defend the rights of Mother Earth and
all beings in her and that there are existing cultures, practices and
laws that do so;
conscious of the urgency of taking
decisive, collective action to transform structures and systems that
cause climate change and other threats to Mother Earth;
proclaim this Universal Declaration of
the Rights of Mother Earth, and call on the General Assembly of the
United Nation to adopt it, as a common standard of achievement for all
peoples and all nations of the world, and to the end that every
individual and institution takes responsibility for promoting through
teaching, education, and consciousness raising, respect for the rights
recognized in this Declaration and ensure through prompt and progressive
measures and mechanisms, national and international, their universal
and effective recognition and observance among all peoples and States in
Article 1. Mother Earth
(1) Mother Earth is a living being.
(2) Mother Earth is a unique, indivisible, self-regulating community
of interrelated beings that sustains, contains and reproduces all
(3) Each being is defined by its relationships as an integral part of
(4) The inherent rights of Mother Earth are inalienable in that they
arise from the same source as existence.
(5) Mother Earth and all beings are entitled to all the inherent
rights recognized in this Declaration without distinction of any kind,
such as may be made between organic and inorganic beings, species,
origin, use to human beings, or any other status.
(6) Just as human beings have human rights, all other beings also
have rights which are specific to their species or kind and appropriate
for their role and function within the communities within which they
(7) The rights of each being are limited by the rights of other
beings and any conflict between their rights must be resolved in a way
that maintains the integrity, balance and health of Mother Earth.
Article 2. Inherent Rights of Mother Earth
(1) Mother Earth and all beings of which she is composed have the
following inherent rights:
(a) the right to life and to exist;
(b) the right to be respected;
(c) the right to regenerate its
bio-capacity and to continue its vital cycles and processes free from
(d) the right to maintain its identity
and integrity as a distinct, self-regulating and interrelated being;
(e) the right to water as a source of
(f) the right to clean air;
(g) the right to integral health;
(h) the right to be free from
contamination, pollution and toxic or radioactive waste;
(i) the right to not have its genetic
structure modified or disrupted in a manner that threatens it integrity
or vital and healthy functioning;
(j) the right to full and prompt
restoration the violation of the rights recognized in this Declaration
caused by human activities;
(2) Each being has the right to a place and to play its role in
Mother Earth for her harmonious functioning.
(3) Every being has the right to wellbeing and to live free from
torture or cruel treatment by human beings.
Article 3. Obligations of human beings to Mother Earth
(1) Every human being is responsible for respecting and living in
harmony with Mother Earth.
(2) Human beings, all States, and all public and private institutions
(a) act in accordance with the rights and
obligations recognized in this Declaration;
(b) recognize and promote the full
implementation and enforcement of the rights and obligations recognized
in this Declaration;
(c) promote and participate in learning,
analysis, interpretation and communication about how to live in harmony
with Mother Earth in accordance with this Declaration;
(d) ensure that the pursuit of human
wellbeing contributes to the wellbeing of Mother Earth, now and in the
(e) establish and apply effective norms
and laws for the defence, protection and conservation of the rights of
(f) respect, protect, conserve and where
necessary, restore the integrity, of the vital ecological cycles,
processes and balances of Mother Earth;
(g) guarantee that the damages caused by
human violations of the inherent rights recognized in this Declaration
are rectified and that those responsible are held accountable for
restoring the integrity and health of Mother Earth;
(h) empower human beings and institutions
to defend the rights of Mother Earth and of all beings;
(i) establish precautionary and
restrictive measures to prevent human activities from causing species
extinction, the destruction of ecosystems or the disruption of
(j) guarantee peace and eliminate
nuclear, chemical and biological weapons;
(k) promote and support practices of
respect for Mother Earth and all beings, in accordance with their own
cultures, traditions and customs;
(l) promote economic systems that are in
harmony with Mother Earth and in accordance with the rights recognized
in this Declaration.
Article 4. Definitions
(1) The term “being” includes ecosystems, natural communities,
species and all other natural entities which exist as part of Mother
(2) Nothing in this Declaration restricts the recognition of other
inherent rights of all beings or specified beings.
2. Shared vision
Conclusions of Working Group 9 on Shared
Vision. text from PWCCC.
* * *
shared vision is premised in our collective knowledge. Our
collective knowledge includes the knowhow of our ancestors, traditional
knowledge, practices of our Indigenous peoples and the science that is
not responsible to vested interests and is directed at improving the
safety, stability, health and wellbeing of the Earth.
2. The shared vision is to confront
climate change as the urgent priority for all humanity. Our world is
going through a climate and environmental emergency. This must be
recognised by all, including states. Human induced climate change is a
real and present threat to the life of Mother Earth and all living
beings. The shared vision is integral, it seeks to define all the
elements of a successful solution to climate change, and their
relationship to each other. It addresses the historical and structural
causes of climate change – including the climate debts that the
developed countries owe to the world’s poor and vulnerable communities –
while offering a vision in which all people are part of the solution
and do not repeat the mistakes of "developed countries".
3. The evidence provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change, particularly in its fourth Assessment Report, leaves no
question that the climate crisis is a product of the of development and
production patterns, which are provoking a massive disruption of natural
ecosystems. There are recent scientific reports that provide more
alarming data on the impacts of climate change that will be caused if we
do not change our lifestyles. This scientific data must be noted in
international agreements and public policies aimed at addressing climate
change. Similarly, drawing on our collective knowledge, we have the
means to overcome the climate crisis. The traditional knowledge of
Indigenous cultures, the experiences of farmers and local communities
will be central to finding solutions.
4. The shared vision is to stabilise greenhouse gases concentrations
to give effect to Article 2 of the United Nations Framework on
Convention Climate Change which states that the “stabilization of
greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would
prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system…”.
Our vision is based on the principle of common but differentiated
historical responsibilities, to demand that developed countries commit
to quantified targets for reducing emissions that allow concentrations
of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere to return to 300 ppm and thus
limiting the increase in global mean temperature to a maximum level of
1º Celsius. Stressing the need for urgent action to achieve this vision,
with the support of the peoples, movements and countries, developed
countries must commit to ambitious targets for reducing emissions to
achieve short-term objectives, while sustaining our vision for balance
in the Earth’s climate system, according to the ultimate objective of
5. It is not acceptable for global temperatures to increase by more
than 2ºC as was proposed in the undemocratic “Copenhagen Accord”,
or for concentrations of greenhouse gases to approach 450 ppm, as was
proposed by the G8. The “Copenhagen Accord” in fact threatens upwards of
3.9ºC of global warming, it ignores historical responsibility and
includes inadequate developed country commitments on mitigation,
adaptation, technology and finance, and undermines the agreement of a
science-based aggregate target for developed countries, binding
individual targets and effective compliance. These proposals threaten
the stability of the Earth’s climate system and thus risk massive and
systemic disaster for Mother Earth and humans across the world. It will
see food production reduced by 40% globally. Between 20% and 30% of all
species will be in danger of disappearing. Large tracts of forest will
be affected, droughts and floods will affect ecosystems across regions
of the planet, deserts will spread and the melting of polar icecaps, and
glaciers in the Andes and the Himalayas will worsen.
An increase of global temperatures to 2ºC accepts the disappearance
of several small island countries. In Africa the increase of temperature
will be even greater than the world average, and many of their
countries will reduce their crops by up to 50%. Between 70 and 250
million additional people will have more difficulty accessing to
drinking water services by 2020, and the costs of adaptation to sea
level rise will reach between 5% and 10% of gross domestic product in
those countries. The impacts of climate change will see millions of
people forced to leave their homes and migrate to new towns, cities and
With an increase of 2ºC rise in temperature there is a 50%
possibility that the damage caused to the Earth system will be
completely irreversible. Those who promote this goal must be held
responsible for the consequences.
6. The shared vision is a world in which all people “live well” in
harmony with Mother Earth and other human beings. This vision rejects
the capitalist model of life and development that is premised on the
supremacy of human beings over nature and the compulsive accumulation of
material possessions by human beings. It is this system, the underlying
structural root cause of climate change, that has seen developed
countries pollute the atmosphere and cause climate change, giving rise
to their historical responsibility and climate debts. Thus the shared
vision is of a world where all countries and people meet their
differentiated responsibilities and in which we enhance the well being
of all peoples and maintain the stability, integrity and health of our
home – Mother Earth.
7. The shared vision of “living well” is of societies that respect
principles of interdependency and responsibility and therefore practice
reciprocity, complementarity, solidarity, equity and live in harmony
with Mother Earth and each other. It is a global society of peoples and
social movements, who stand in solidarity to change the system that is
putting the planet in peril. This change will come from revaluing
traditional knowledge that respects nature in all parts of the planet.
The survival and the right to live in harmony and balance with Mother
Earth is the primary objective of all nations and peoples, as it ensures
equity for present and future generations.
8. The colonisation of atmospheric space by developed countries,
causing climate change and its impacts, are affecting and paralysing
people’s right to “live well” and in harmony with nature. The
perpetrators of this crime must assume their moral and legal
responsibilities and must urgently reduce greenhouse gases emissions
within their countries without using carbon markets. These reductions
will allow the peoples of developed countries to ‘live well’, and to
improve their lives in harmony with nature.
9. The shared vision is of a massive and global-scale mobilisation
of peoples, movements and knowledge to address climate change. To be
effective, this vision is of specific and measurable goals to be
achieved, including the following:
a) The equitable and fair distribution of the Earth’s
reversing the historical concentration of the right to the atmosphere
in the hands of a few. This colonisation of the sky has privileged their
economies and development while the majority of the world’s population
remains in poverty. Hence there will be the decolonization of the
atmospheric space by developed countries and their elites, in order to
recognize and honour their climate debts.
b) The deepest possible
reduction of GHG emissions from domestic
sources by developed countries.
c) There will be quantified
changes to the unsustainable patterns
of consumption and production. This will involve capacity building for
developed countries to enable them to reduce their high per-person
greenhouse gas emissions, to live in harmony with nature and to reduce
their climate and ecological debts to developing countries and Mother
d) The promotion and sharing of knowledge and knowhow held
ancestors respecting Mother Earth, and not to be the object of
intellectual property laws.
e) The international legal recognition
of the rights of Mother
f) Provision of financial resources by developed countries
developing countries amounting to at least 6% of the value of GNP of
developed countries, for adaptation, technology transfer, capacity
building and mitigation
g) Provisions by developed countries of
means of implementation to
developing countries to facilitate adequate adaptation to climate
change, to meet the costs of its adverse effects and to repay adaptation
debts including through the provision of financial resources by
developed countries equivalent to at least 3% of their GNP;
transfer of environmentally sound technologies to
developing countries and enhancement of their endogenous capacities and
technologies including through the provision of financial resources by
developed countries equivalent to at least 1% of their GNP;
Capacity building to enable the upgrading of developing
countries institutional capacities to address climate change and its
adverse effects including through the provision of financial resources
by developed countries equivalent to at least 1% of their GNP;
Measures by developing countries to mitigate climate change,
including nationally appropriate mitigation actions supported and
enabled by developed countries including through the provision of
financial resources by developed countries equivalent to at least 1% of
k) The identification and removal of all barriers to
solidarity transfer of technologies without cost, including the
exclusion of patents on climate related technologies to all countries.
10. The shared vision rejects false solutions such as nuclear power,
genetic engineering, geo-engineering, biofuels and mega-dams that
further threaten Mother Earth and our vision to live in harmony with
nature and other people. Like these dangerous technologies, the carbon
market is not a solution. Carbon market mechanisms only concentrate more
wealth and power in the hands of transnational corporations, those most
responsible for climate change.
11. The shared vision of a common future is based on the goals and
principles set out here, in the context of an effort that addresses the
structural causes of climate change. One in which the benefits of the
Earth’s atmosphere and climate system are shared fairly. One in which
the means to “live well” – including ecologically and socially sound
technologies, financial resources and capacities based in our collective
knowledge – are shared among all peoples. A vision in which we build
and share a new model of life and development that is premised on
recognizing and defending the rights of Mother Earth and the rights of
every living being.
3. Final conclusions Working Group 1: Structural Causes
Text from PWCCC.
We are faced with a profound structural crisis as a consequence of
having reached the planet’s limits. We are confronted with the terminal
crisis of a patriarchal development model based in the slavery and
destruction of human beings and nature. The climate crisis we live in
isn’t only a problem of rising atmospheric temperatures, but also the
global destruction of conditions that make life possible on the planet
and the harmonic relationship of humans with Mother Earth.
The looting/expropriation of the communal goods of all the peoples of
the world was accelerated with the genocidal colonial expansion of
capitalism more than 500 years ago. With the industrial revolution, a
new jump in history occurred initiating a new production system of
growth and overflowing global accumulation concentrated primarily in the
most industrialised countries that have generated 75% of the cumulative
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions even though they represent only 20% of
the world population.
This production pattern has led to the current climate crisis which
translates into major effects primarily for countries in the global
with extreme climate events such as prolonged droughts, floods, etc.
The capitalist system has imposed on us an ideology of "progress" and
unlimited growth. This regime of production and consumption is guided
by the search for maximum gain, forgetting completely the implications
of an infinite growth pattern on a finite planet. This pattern of
development has separated human beings from nature, establishing a
rationale of domination over nature and leading to the destruction of
This capitalist development model has created societies and ways of
life that are incompatible with nature. Mother Earth is assumed to be a
source of raw materials and human beings become a means for production
and consumption. For this system, the logic of life is competition and
the hunger for unlimited gain. The capitalist system turns everything
into a commodity: water, earth, the human genome, ancestral cultures,
biodiversity, justice, ethics, death and life itself. Everything must be
extracted, transformed and consumed, thus negating the sacred character
of nature. With this system, the spiritual relationship of the people
with Mother Earth is broken.
The overexploitation and unequal appropriation of the planet’s
communal goods have benefited some sectors of the population to the
detriment of others. For example, hundreds of millions of people lack
access to clean water and other conditions for a dignified life, while
others squander the abundance of communal goods and then profit from the
shortage. This system has massacred and expelled the indigenous peoples
and farmers from their territories by taking control over their land,
communal goods, germoplasm and ancestral knowledge.
Capitalism pretends to satisfy all the deficiencies and
dissatisfactions of human beings through the consumption of things. The
“first developed world” should be called instead the “hyper-consuming
first world”. For instance, the United States of America, because of its
unlimited level of consumption, increased its GHG emissions by 16.8%
during the period from 1990 to 2007. On average, this emits about 20 to
23 tons of CO2 a year per person and represents more than 9 times the
emissions of an inhabitant of the Third World, almost eight times the
emissions of a Latin American and Caribbean per capita and more than 20
times the emissions of a person from sub-Saharan Africa.
This capitalist logic places financial gain over people. Through
commerce, the unlimited consumer identity is created and new patterns of
consumption are established so that people are valued more by what they
have than by who they are. For this system, profit and profitability
are placed above everything else and the rights to access and the
efficiency of basic services for the people are converted into
commerce. Gain requires more gain.
Corporations and the governments of the most dominant developed
countries, in complicity with a part of the scientific community, have
shaped the climate change discussion as a problem of temperature
increase, posing to us technical and commercial solutions that don’t
question the justification behind this type of production and
Today, “climate change” has become a business for the capitalist
system. Governments and ¨developed¨ countries are promising so-called
¨green¨ reforms of the system. These mechanisms of technological
innovation are directed by the creation of new sources of investment and
business under the pretext that this technology will resolve the
climate crisis. What these solutions really do is exacerbate the
problems we face. These false solutions, called clean development mechanisms (CDM), leave the responsibility of caring for the planet to
the global South without taking on any real responsibility themselves.
The corporate pattern of production, distribution, wastefulness and
consumption of food and all the mechanisms of agribusiness (factory
farming of animals, monoculture, genetically modified foods,
nanotechnologies, pesticides, biofuels, etc.) aren’t just destroying the
sustainable production of food, farm production and food sovereignty. They are also one of the fundamental causes of the destruction process
of nature (CO2 emissions, methane, nitrous oxide, deforestation,
contamination of soil and overuse and contamination of the waters,
The political, economic, military and communications power structure,
along with the current legal-institutional administration, legitimise,
promote and deepen destructive ideologies. Current international
financial and commercial institutions (WB, IMF, IDB, WTO and others)
with their rules, regulations and secured funding systematically impose
predatory growth. Mainstream media and the culture industry promote
individualism and irrational and unsustainable consumerism, and help
cement them as the only possible way to exist. These tendencies have
been accentuated during the last decades of neoliberal globalisation,
free trade and the increased use of monoculture and extractivism. We
are in the presence of an imperialistic system of re-colonialisation of
Capitalism responds through militarisation, repression and war to the
resistance of the people. It requires a potent military industry, the
militarisation of societies and war as conditions necessary for its
process of accumulation as well as for its control over territories,
mineral and energy resources, and to suppress the struggles of the
people. Wars, through their direct impact on the environment (massive
consumption of combustible fossil fuels, oil spills, GHG emissions,
impoverished uranium contamination, white phosphorus etc.) have become
one of the primary destroyers of Mother Earth.
The battle against global warming is not only about the urgent
transformation of production and consumption, it is also a strong fight
against paradigms and hegemonic models of colonial and Eurocentric
knowledge. These hegemonic forms of knowledge and subjectivity are
firmly instilled in education systems all over the world. Cultural
patterns, personal opinions and the aspirations of the planet's
populations have been greatly penetrated by the values of the
individualistic capitalist consumer identity. Changes in production
have to be accompanied by a profound cultural revolution that alters
current hegemonic behavioural patterns, strengthening other world visions
of life like "Living Well" or "el buen vivir", which are in harmony
with Pachamama [Mother Earth].
What has failed is the model of trying to live as "a better consumer
every time”, of development without brakes, of unlimited
industrialisation, of modernity that scorns history, of cultures and the
knowledge of others, of life based on the increasing accumulation of
material things at the cost of others and of nature.
Capitalism as a patriarchal system of endless growth is
incompatible with life on this finite planet. For the planet, every
alternative for life must necessarily be anticapitalist. But not only
this, it must be more than anticapitalist. The Soviet experience has
shown us that a predatory production system with devastating conditions
that make life similar to that of capitalism was possible with other
ownership relationships. The alternatives must lead to a profound
transformation of civilisation. Without this profound transformation,
it will not be possible to continue life on planet Earth.
is faced with a huge dilemma: continue down the road of capitalism,
patriarchy, progress and death, or embark on the path of harmony with
nature and respect for life.
Cochabamba, Tiquipaya, April 2010
Global South: A geopolitical and cultural concept, not a geographic
one, that describes human groups as having historically been confined to
greater economic and environmental vulnerability than other human
4. Final conclusions Working Group 4: Referendum on Climate Change
Text from PWCCC.
Need for a Global Referendum, plebiscite or popular consultation
Negotiations on climate change developed in Copenhagen showed that
the representatives of developed countries seek to attribute the
decision-making and the imposition of the same to all peoples,
governments and countries on the planet without consultation of
decisions that affect Mother Earth and the future of humanity,
forgetting that the planet and its destination are not the exclusive
property of a group of governments or international institutions.
On the assumption that the human being is the
brother who has the power to watch over other beings that are part of
Mother Earth, its ability to affect compliance with the relationship we
have with Mother Earth and its possibility to generate opportunities for
discussion that enable the implementation of activities and actions to
preserve that relationship, it must have the possibility to demonstrate
by direct feedback, by making decisions and establishing lines of action
for each government to generate rights to restore harmony with our
It has been determined the existence of a consensus to pursue a world
referendum, plebiscite or referendum, taking into account the realities
of each country or region in favor of Mother Earth
Questions designed for the World Referendum, plebiscite or popular consultation
In order to carry out the World Referendum, plebiscite or popular
consultation, which will restore the relationship between Mother Earth
and its inhabitants, the WPCCC suggests the following questions, knowing
that the same should be put into consideration of the inhabitants of
the planet through National Committees:
1. Do you agree to change the capitalist model of overproduction and
overconsumption and to restore harmony with nature, recognising and
respecting the rights of Mother Earth?
2. Do you agree that the countries and transnational corporations
reabsorb and reduce its production of greenhouse gases in proportion to
their historical responsibilities for emissions and to slow down global
3. Do you agree to transfer all that is spent in wars and allocate it
a higher budget in defence of Mother Earth?
4. Do you agree that our countries become territories of peace free
of occupation of troops and foreign military bases?
5. Do you agree with the establishment of a Climate and Environmenta
Justice Tribunal to judge those who destroy Mother Earth?
When to develop the global referendum, plebiscite or popularc onsultation
The referendum, plebiscite or referendum:
• To be announced on April 22, 2010, the day of Mother Earth, the
possibility of global vote after the International Committee and
National Committees ensures success in this development must be left
Mechanisms to develop the referendum, plebiscite or referendum
It supports the creation of an International Committee, respecting
the establishment and empowerment of the National Committees, to address
The method of voting can be developed through:
The creation on an International Committee is supported in order to
carry out the Referendum, whilst respecting the conformation and
autonomy of the National Committees.
The way of voting can be developed as following:
• The referendum will be officially developed in countries where it
has the support of national governments and in countries where this is
not possible it will be conducted by social organizations, student
unions, social networks and other civil society organisms, in the form
of a plebiscite or referendum.
• The voting forms will be defined by the National Committees
according to the uses and customs.
• Those present are committed to promote the creation of national
committees with greater involvement of organisations of each country to
potentiate the actions of the referendum, plebiscite or popularc onsultation through pedagogical processes for policy discussions and
actions defined by this popular conference.
5. Document of the Working Group on Agriculture and Food Sovereignty
At the plenary session of the World People's Conference of Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth, held on Wednesday, April 21, 2010, at the coliseum in the municipality of Tiquipaya, working group No. 17, on Agriculture and Food Sovereignty, presented and approved the following conclusions. Group president Luis Andragó, Ecuadorian leader of the FENOCIN Association, along with vice-president Leonilda Zurita, leader of the Bolivian Association of Peasant Women "Bartolina Sisa", submitted the following conclusions to the general plenary.
* * *
Social movements and popular organisations gathered at the CMPCC [World People's Conference of Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth] confirm that despite our constant protests and numerous allegations, capitalist governments, international agencies and financial institutions continue on a path towards exacerbating the destruction of the planet. Climate change is one of the most serious threats to food sovereignty for all peoples of the world. Once again we observe that:
1. Agribusiness through its social, economic and cultural development of globalised capitalist production and its logic of food production for the market and not to fulfill the right to food is a major cause of climate change. Land use change (deforestation and expansion of the agricultural frontier), monocultures, production, marketing and use of pesticides and agrochemical inputs, industrial food processing and all of the logistics involved in transporting [food] thousands of miles to reach the consumer, and the production of greenhouse gases in the huge garbage and manure dumps from intensive industrial livestock facilities, are major contributors to the climate crisis and the growing number of hungry people in the world.
2. That plundering and destruction of aquifers, springs and water bodies, and ecosystems and ecological cycles that give life are inextricably linked to processes of privatisation that are driven by capitalist governments and international agencies. At the same time, we see how climate change will destroy glaciers and other water sources. We find that the basic human right of access to water for consumption, to living organisms and to food production is restricted on a daily basis due to the expansion of industrial agriculture, mining, oil extraction, industrial food processing, forest plantations, planting and production of biofuels, industrial aquaculture, and hydroelectric megaprojects.
3. That the territorial deployment of mega infrastructure projects in the service of capital alters natural, social and cultural processes making forms of harmonious coexistence with Mother Earth impossible, destroying livelihoods, driving rural, Indigenous/native and fishing communities from their territories and facilitating the expansion of an extractive and agro-export model.
4. Climate change causes forced migration in rural areas and is a threat to Indigenous/native peoples, peasant communities and fisher[people] who are most harmed through the destruction of their livelihoods, their ancestral and local agricultural wisdom, and hence their identity.
5. That biofuels are not an alternative because they prioritise agricultural production for transport over production of food for humans. Biofuels expand the agricultural frontier, destroying forests and biodiversity, generate monocultures, promote the concentration of land, the degradation of soils, and the depletion of water sources, contribute to rising food prices, and consume more energy than they generate.
6. That genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are not a solution to climate change and are only a tool of corporations to control seeds and food globally. They signify a serious attack on local knowledge, human health, the environment, local autonomy and impede the effective implementation of the right to food.
7. They continue to develop technologies to serve the interests of big business while trying to pass them off as solutions to different crises now facing Mother Earth and humanity. We know that they are all false solutions used as tools for accumulation and business for large multinationals, which only exacerbate the dependency, the concentration and destruction. Among others we can highlight geoengineering, nanotechnology, terminator and similar technologies, synthetic biology and biochar.
8. That the advance of free trade through economic partnership agreements, treaties on free trade and investment protection, among others, are a direct attack on the sovereignty of countries and peoples, autonomy of states and the ability of multilateral action by international agencies. As implementation progresses, there is an increase in the destructive impacts on local economies, food sovereignty, environmental, social and cultural rights of peoples and the rights of Mother Earth.
9. That the current worsening of hoarding of land and oceans by economic groups, corporations and both state and private speculative capital are some of the most serious and imminent attacks faced by people and their food, social and political sovereignty. The extreme concentration and foreignisation of land, compounded by the current free trade rules are an attack on plant and animal biodiversity, on land reform, and on the reconstitution process of Indigenous and peasant lands for which social movements have struggled indefatigably.
10. That various forms of intellectual property rights are an instrument of privatisation that destroys local, traditional and scientific knowledge systems restricting the use and conservation of agricultural biodiversity and outlawing cultural practices and local, community and ancestral agriculture. Faced with this reality that people around the world endure, we the social movements and popular organisations gathered for this CMPCC pledge to continue fighting for a set of solutions and to mobilise in order to ensure that governments fulfill their duty to carry them out. We will centre our efforts on the building of food sovereignty, defending and supporting peasant and Indigenous agriculture as sources of food, as a wellspring of dignity and identity, and as a real and concrete alternative for cooling the planet, and believe in ensuring gender equality at the heart of our action.
The solutions that we see as priorities are:
11. Enhance and restore agri-cultures and local, rural and Indigenous/native livelihoods, and ancestral knowledge systems of production and harvesting of food, local and traditional health systems that have been degraded and undervalued by the agribusiness logic oriented towards overproduction, export and profit generation, noting that food sovereignty is the way to respond and solve climate change.
12. Promote and secure funding policies as well as socially participative and public control mechanisms for agricultural production systems to avoid damage to Mother Earth. These should include research, extension and public investment to eliminate the use of petrochemically based agricultural inputs, to improve soil organic content, reduce post-harvest losses, strengthen local markets, promote urban agriculture, protect sources and bodies of water, and support Indigenous/native peasant family farming and food sovereignty.
13. Defend, revalorise and disseminate the sustainable model of peasant and Indigenous/native agricultural production, and other ecological models and ancestral practices that contribute to solving the problem of climate change and ensure food sovereignty. This is understood as the right of peoples to control their own seeds, land, water and food production, thus ensuring -- through production in harmony with Mother Earth, and which is locally and culturally appropriate -- the peoples’ access to sufficient, varied and nutritious foods which complement Mother Earth and deepen autonomous production (participatory, community oriented and shared)of each nation and people. At the same time we reject global food standardisation and its nutritional, environmental, social, cultural and health impacts.
14. Recognise the right of all peoples, living beings and Mother Earth to have access to and enjoy water. Likewise, recognise the right of peoples and countries to control, regulate and plan the supportive and respectful use and management of water and its cycles in the framework of agreements and international conventions and customary law, banning any form of privatisation and commodification of water, creating popular participation bodies to regulate its multiple uses, protect its quality and plan future use for consumption by living organisms and food production. In this context, we support the proposal from the government of Bolivia to recognise water as a fundamental human right as expressed in the "Declaration on the Human Right to Water" and we see it as an important step in the right direction.
15. Ban technologies and technological processes that endanger the welfare and survival of Mother Earth and living things, and that are only driven by their potential to produce profits for a small number of companies, while at the same time cause and accelerate climate change, such as: agrofuels, genetically modified organisms, nanotechnology, geoengineering and all those that -- under the assumption that they help the climate -- in fact undermine food sovereignty and are an assault on Mother Earth. Impose a permanent worldwide ban on terminator technology, pharma crops and similar technologies.
16. Prohibit fisher trawling which is predatory and destructive of biodiversity and the livelihoods of artisanal fisher[people].
17. Prohibit large-scale mining pollution that destroys ecosystems, expels local populations, pollutes waterways and threatens the food sovereignty of peoples.
18. Reject, condemn and prohibit any political-military and trade strategy that undermines the food sovereignty of peoples and makes them more vulnerable to climate change.
19. Uphold the primacy of human, economic, social and cultural rights, as well as the rights of Mother Earth and biodiversity over the TRIPS (trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights treaty) and any other trade agreement under international law. Countries must also ensure respect for the collective knowledge of Indigenous/native and peasant communities, and therefore the collective right of decision making about access to and use of this knowledge. National measures to implement this would not be subject to proceedings under the rules of trade agreements that strengthen or protect intellectual property rights. Any formal investigation developed with public support must be for the public good, not subject to intellectual property rules that restrict information sharing.
20. Prohibit any form of patenting and intellectual property of any form of life and ancestral and traditional knowledge canceling existing patents.
21. Prohibit dumping (selling products below production cost) and unfair trade practices of industrialised countries that distort food prices and affect food sovereignty thus making non-industrialised countries the most vulnerable to climate change.
22. Implement policies and regulations to protect small domestic food production, including the type of subsidies they consider necessary for their agricultural sector, as well as ensuring their right to set tariff barriers equivalent to any subsidy incorporated in exported products and allowing the free movement of local production.
23. Affirm that the central part of the solution to climate change is through the strengthening and expansion of peasant and native agri-food systems, urban agriculture and artisanal fishing. This means that not only is it necessary to change the logic of industrial food production oriented towards global markets and profit, but to change the concept that assumes that the Earth is a resource open for exploitation, without rights, and oriented towards merely satisfying the greed of human beings. We the people gather together to declare that the planet is a living entity with rights and a spirit.
24. Promote broad-based, deep and genuine agrarian reform processes and the reconstitution of Indigenous, Afro and peasant territories building participatory rural villages with a focus on gender, so that peasant, Indigenous/native peoples, their cultures and lifestyles regain their central and vital role in world agriculture in order to achieve food sovereignty and restore harmony for the achievement of global climate balance. Agrarian reform of this kind must include respect for local and ancestral knowledge and ensure the necessary arrangements to ensure production at all stages of the chain (cultivation, processing and marketing). We demand the recognition of the rights of Indigenous peoples in voluntary isolation and that their territories be recognised and respected.
25. Promote and strengthen holistic education (spiritual, physical and social) for food sovereignty as a foundation for the changes needed to integrate their proposals at all levels of formal and non-formal education, developing content born out of local realities and based on a multicultural vision and the full participation of communities responding to the needs of each region and community. At the same time, we maintain that the extensive information and communication on these issues is one of the biggest challenges we face.
26. To declare native and wild seeds as the heritage of peoples in the service of humanity, as the foundation of food sovereignty, and their free movement through the hands of Indigenous/native and peasant peoples; cared for and multiplied by the custodians of seeds according to the cultures of each people.
27. Require that the impacts of global warming on food sovereignty are inserted within the framework of discussions on climate change and are inserted into national legislation.
These conclusions will be put up for debate at the next UN climate summit to be held this December in Cancun, Mexico.
6. `We demand the enforcement of the payment of climate debt'
Final document debated and approved by the Working Group on Climate Debt, during the World People's Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth.
* * *
1. Climate debt concept
climate debt is an obligation of compensation that is generated because of the damage done to Mother Earth by the irrational emissions of greenhouse gases. Those primarily responsible for these irrational emissions are the so-called “developed countries“, inhabited by only 20% of the world population, and which have emitted 75% of historical emissions of greenhouse gases.
These states, which stimulated the capitalist development model, are responsible for climate debt, but we shouldn’t forget that within these states, there live poor and Indigenous peoples which are also affected by this debt.
The most affected are the poorest developing countries, future generations and our Mother Earth.The colonisation of atmospheric space has produced climate change, which poses a serious threat to the islands, coastal areas, glaciers in the Himalayas, the Andes and the mountains of the world, the poles of the Earth, hot regions like Africa, water sources, growing natural disaster-affected populations, plants and animals, and ecosystems in general, generating climate debt.
The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change recognises that obligation by affirming that developed countries are historically responsible for those emissions, and in sustaining that they should take the initiative to combat climate change. This fact is expressed in the existence of the Kyoto Protocol, under which countries obligated to reduce greenhouse gases are the developed countries listed in Annex 1 of the convention.
2. Climate debt components
The responsibility for the climate debt of each developed country is established in relation to the level of emissions, taking into account the historically emitted amount of tons of carbon per capita.
a) Emissions debt – We understand as the emissions debt the over-use of space atmospheric by greenhouse gas pollution by developed countries, taking into account the equal rights of all countries in the world to have access to the use and enjoyment of atmospheric space.
Developed countries must compensate as follows:
• They are required to reduce high concentrations of greenhouse gases they caused.
• They also have to reduce their emissions and absorb greenhouse gases.
• They must ensure a space for development for poor countries.
We express our rejection of the fact that developed countries decide to choose freely how deep cuts they intend to do, as proposed in the Copenhagen Accord.
b) Development debt – Developing countries are entitled to the same opportunities for development, to provide basic services to the entire population, and a degree of industrialisation which allows the country’s economic independence. But this development must not harm the environment and atmosphere. To achieve this development within a highly restricted access to the atmospheric space, they need access to all technologies – according to their worldview – for the development and funding required for its implementation.
Among the technologies we require are: recycling of waste materials, improvement of traditional techniques with new technologies, access to clean energy sources – solar, wind and biogas digesters, forms of protection against natural disasters, research into vaccines and medicines diseases enhanced by climate change, among others.
c) Adaptation debt – The impacts of climate change make the rain lose its seasonality, loss of fresh water sources, increased hail, frost, droughts, floods. They decrease crop and livestock production. The population is suffering from an increase in various diseases. These impacts have many implications at the economic and developmental level, therefor those who caused the climate crisis have the responsibility to compensate all damage, through: investing (with funding and technology) in the prevention of major impacts, full compensation for the negative impacts that actually happen and compensating opportunity costs, which involve the deviation of development funds, among others.
d) Migration debt – Due to climate impacts, millions of people find their own land uninhabitable, converting them into climate migrants. The compensation of the migration debt implies that the so called "developed" countries must drop its restrictive migration policies, receiving them in their countries with dignity, and recognition of their human rights and cultural rights.
e) Debt to Mother Earth – The debt to Mother Earth is impossible to compensate completely, because the atrocities committed by humanity have been too terrible. However, the minimum compensation of this debt consists of:
• Recognition of the damage done.
• Restoration of harmony with Mother Earth.
• Adoption of the United Nations Declaration on the Mother Earth’s Rights [above], to ensure that the same abuses will never be repeated in future. This is to ensure that capitalism and the drive for profit does not contravene the ultimate interests of Mother Earth and the peoples of the world.
3. How can debt be compensated?
Compensation for climate debt is to be done through multiple ways, which complement each other. Indispensible minimal elements are:
• The re-absorption and cleaning the atmosphere by developed countries.
• Payment in technology (eliminating patents) and in knowledge according to our worldview for both clean development and for adaptation to developing countries.
• Changes in immigration laws that allow us to offer a new home for all climate migrants.
• The adoption of the Declaration on the Mother Earth’s Rights.
In addition we need to work on the structural causes that caused the climate debt, providing education for children, political awareness and respect for Mother Earth.
Climate debt is part of a larger ecological debt, which in addition to gas emissions includes all environmental damages that were made in developing countries for the benefit of developed countries.
4. Strategies to ensure climate debt compensation
To ensure full compliance with the climate debt the following are needed:
• The establishment of an international body that determines the responsibilities of polluter countries.
• The creation of an impartial International Tribunal for Climate Justice, which has jurisdiction in cases of default of repayment of the debt.
• Encourage a research study the responsibilities of climate change, determining the climate debt.
• Promote international awareness that the fulfilment of the climate debt is an obligation on the part of developed countries, and is not aid granted us.
We hold that the capitalist system and the developed capitalist countries as the main cause of climate change generated climate debt.
From this conference we demanded the enforcement of the payment of climate debt.
We, who live in harmony with Mother Earth, are her main defenders; from here we call on all humanity to join the struggle for the preservation of life.
7. Document debated and approved by the Working Group on Climate Finance
A. Financing commitments under the UNFCCC
1. Developed country parties included in Annex 1 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have committed to financing the costs incurred by developing country parties to cover the costs of mitigation, technology transfer and capacity building, including all adaptation costs. This financing constitutes an obligation in response to developed country parties historical emissions of greenhouse gases; and constitutes a part of reparations for their climate debt.
2. Developed country parties have failed to meet their climate finance commitments, in part because the current financing model – which includes both carbon markets and existing financial institutions outside the authority of the UNFCCC – is ineffective at meeting the needs of developing country parties to address climate change.
3. Under the UNFCCC climate finance must be new and additional to existing commitments to Overseas Development Assistance (ODA) toward the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; however the vast majority of current climate finance by developed country parties is counted as both ODA and climate finance. This constitutes a double counting of financial assistance to developing country parties. In addition, this financing is channeled through financial institutions, the World Bank, and Regional Development Banks in the form of or attached to loans – even for adaptation, which increases the debt of developing country parties.
4. Financing for adaptation in developing countries must not be conditioned on mitigation actions.
5. All policy and program priorities, and eligibility criteria for funding must come from the parties to the UNFCCC.
6. Funding shall be available to all developing country parties without discrimination or conditionality, under the principles of common but differentiate responsibility and climate debt.
7. Financing must not undermine the sovereignty and self-determination of developing country parties. Financing must respond to country driven processes that involve communities in decision making.
8. Funding priority must be given to those communities and countries most affected, that preserve nature, and that have contributed least to the emissions of greenhouse gases; and respond to the principles and provisions of the UNFCCC.
9. The outcome of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action at COP15 must be the basis for negotiations in Cancun [in December 2010] (which continues the mandate established in the Bali Action Plan), and not the Copenhagen Accord, which is not a formal decision of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC.
B. Scale and sources of financing for climate change
10. The scale of existing financial resources currently allocated to developing countries parties for addressing climate change plus the Copenhagen Accord proposal to mobilise (US$10 billion per year between
2010 and 2012, and up to US$100 billion by 2020 annually – which represents only 0.8% to 8% of developed countries’ national defence budgets, respectively) is grossly inadequate.
11. Developed country parties must commit at least 6% of their annual GDP for climate finance in developing countries. The viability of mobilising this amount of finance is evident – developed countries spend an equivalent amount each year on national defence. In addition, developed countries have mobilised trillions of dollars (equivalent to five times the 6% GDP proposed) to bail out failed banks and speculators. This is a question of political will, and the priority given to effectively combating climate change and protecting Mother Earth.
12. The finance required must be provided from public sources, and must be new and additional to ODA, to bilateral assistance, and to funds flowing outside the UNFCCC. Any funding provided outside the UNFCCC will not be regarded as meeting the commitments of developed country parties under the convention.
13. The carbon market shall be eliminated as source of financing, because its capitalist logic promotes the paradox that those actors who will benefit most are the same actors who have most harmed the environment. In addition, market mechanisms allow developed countries to evade their commitments to reduce emissions, while at the same time benefitting economically from the climate crisis. Moreover, this model impedes the equitable distribution of resources, cannot guarantee a predictability flow of resources at scale, nor the timely availability or direct access to financing for those most affected.
14. Financing for climate change must be delivered as grants, understood as a part of the reparations for climate debt between parties. Loans cannot be considered as fulfillment of financial commitments. In the same way climate financing does not signify a donor/recipient relationship between developed and developing countries.
15. All Annex 1 funding allocated to military purposes and subsidies for fossil fuel producers shall be redirected to climate change.
C. Functions and structure of the financing mechanisms
16. A new financial mechanism shall be established under the authority of the UNFCCC, replacing the Global Environment Facility and its intermediaries such as the World Bank and the regional development banks.
17. This financial mechanism must be under the authority of, and accountable to, the COP of the UNFCCC. There must be equitable representation of developing countries in all decision-making and technical bodies, with specific representation of most affected countries. Affected communities, sectors, classes, women, social movements and civil society groups must also be formally represented; not financial institutions.
18. The management and administration of the financial mechanism must be transparent, inclusive, participatory and democratic.
19. The financial mechanism must respect the sovereign control of each country to determine the definition, design, implementation of policy and programmatic approaches to climate change. In addition, the mechanism must uphold human rights, including economic, social, cultural and collective rights, and other rights enshrined in international covenants and agreements.
20. The financial mechanism must be an operational entity that ensures the flow of resources to developing countries to address climate change in a timely and efficient manner.
21. A system to monitor, report and verify the fulfillment of developed country financial commitments must be established. Information must be publicly disclosed, and allow for independent evaluation and systems for redress for civil society through the climate justice tribunal.
22. The financial mechanism shall be defined and approved at COP16, and be made operational at COP17. Until that time, climate financing for developing countries must be ensured and increased through greater fulfillment of existing commitments.
8. Indigenous Peoples’ Declaration
The Indigenous Peoples’ Declaration adopted at the World Peoples’
Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth in
Cochabamba, Bolivia. Translation by Ben Powless (via Capitalism and Climate), co-chair of the Indigenous People’s Working Group.
* * *
We, the Indigenous Peoples, nations and organizations from all over
the world, gathered at the World Peoples’ Conference on Climate Change
and the Rights of Mother Earth, from April 19th to 22nd, 2010 in
Tiquipaya, Cochabamba, Bolivia, after extensive discussions, express the
We Indigenous Peoples are sons and daughters of Mother Earth, or
“Pachamama” in Quechua. Mother Earth is a living being in the universe
that concentrates energy and life, while giving shelter and life to all
without asking anything in return, she is the past, present and future;
this is our relationship with Mother Earth. We have lived in coexistence
with her for thousands of years, with our wisdom and cosmic
spirituality linked to nature. However, the economic models promoted and
forced by industrialized countries that promote exploitation and wealth
accumulation have radically transformed our relationship with Mother
Earth. We must assert that climate change is one of the consequences of
this irrational logic of life that we must change.
The aggression towards Mother Earth and the repeated assaults and
violations against our soils, air, forests, rivers, lakes, biodiversity,
and the cosmos are assaults against us. Before, we used to ask for
permission for everything. Now, coming from developed countries, it is
presumed that Mother Earth must ask us for permission. Our territories
are not respected, particularly those of peoples in voluntary isolation
or initial contact, and we suffer the most terrible aggression since
colonization only to facilitate the entry of markets and extractive
We recognize that Indigenous Peoples and the rest of the world live
in a general age of crises: environmental, energy, food, financial,
ethical, among others, as a consequence of policies and attitudes from
racist and exclusionary states. We want to convey that at the Copenhagen
Climate Conference, the peoples of the world demanded fair treatment,
but were repressed. Meanwhile the states responsible for the climate
crisis were able to weaken even more any possible outcome of
negotiations and evade signing onto any binding agreement. They limited
themselves to simply supporting the Copenhagen Accord, an accord that
proposes unacceptable and insufficient goals as far as climate change
action and financing to the most affected countries and peoples.
We affirm that international negotiation spaces have systematically
excluded the participation of Indigenous Peoples. As a result, we as
Indigenous Peoples are making ourselves visible in these spaces, because
as Mother Earth has been hurt and plundered, with negative activities
taking place on our lands, territories and natural resources, we have
also been hurt. This is why as Indigenous Peoples we will not keep
silent, but instead we propose to mobilize all our peoples to arrive at
COP16 in Mexico and other spaces well prepared and united to defend our
proposals, particularly the “living well” and plurinational state
We, Indigenous Peoples, do not want to live “better”, but instead we
believe that everyone must live well. This is a proposal to achieve
balance and start to construct a new society. The search for common
objectives, as history shows us, will only be completed with the union
of Indigenous Peoples of the World. The ancestral and indigenous roots
shared by the whole world must be one of the bonds that unite us to
achieve one unique objective.
Therefore we propose, require and demand:
1. The recovery, revalidation and strengthening of our civilizations,
identities, cultures and cosmovisions based on ancient and ancestral
Indigenous knowledge and wisdom for the construction of alternative ways
of life to the current “development model”, as a way to confront
2. To rescue and strengthen the Indigenous proposal of “living well,”
while also recognizing Mother Earth as a living being with whom we have
an indivisible and interdependent relationship, based on principles and
mechanisms that assure the respect, harmony, and balance between people
and nature, and supporting a society based on social and environmental
justice, which sees life as its purpose. All this must be done to
confront the plundering capitalist model and guarantee the protection of
life as a whole, through the search for inclusive global agreements.
3. We demand States to recognize, respect and guarantee the
application of international standards of human rights and Indigenous
Peoples’ rights (i.e., The UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous
Peoples, ILO Convention 169) in the framework of negotiations, policies,
and measures to confront climate change.
4. We demand States to legally recognize the preexistence of our
right to the lands, territories, and natural resources that we have
traditionally held as Indigenous Peoples and Nations, as well as
restitution and restoration of natural goods, water, forests and
jungles, lakes, oceans, sacred places, lands, and territories that have
been dispossessed and seized. This is needed to strengthen and make
possible our traditional way of living while contributing effectively to
climate change solutions.
Inasmuch, we call for the consolidation of indigenous territories in
exercise of our self-determination and autonomy, in conformity with
systems of rules and regulations. At the same time we demand that states
respect the territorial rights of Indigenous Peoples in voluntary
isolation or in initial contact, as an effective way to preserve their
integrity and combat the adverse effects of climate change towards those
5. We call on States not to promote commercial monoculture practices,
nor to introduce or promote genetically-modified and exotic crops,
because according to our people’s wisdom, these species aggravate the
degradation of jungles, forests and soils, contributing to the increase
in global warming. Likewise, megaprojects under the search for
alternative energy sources that affect Indigenous Peoples’ lands,
territories, and natural habitats should not be implemented, including
nuclear, bio-engineering, hydroelectric, wind-power and others.
6. We demand changes to forestry and environmental laws, as well as
the application of pertinent international instruments to effectively
protect forests and jungles, as well as their biological and cultural
diversity, guaranteeing Indigenous Peoples’ rights, including their
participation and their Free, Prior, and Informed Consent.
7. We propose that, in the framework of climate change mitigation and
adaptation measures, states establish a policy that Protected Natural
Areas must be managed, administered and controlled directly by
Indigenous Peoples, taking into account the demonstrated traditional
experience and knowledge towards the sustainable management of the
biodiversity in our forests and jungles.
8. We demand a review, or if the case warrants, a moratorium, to
every polluting activity that affects Mother Earth, and the withdrawal
of multinational corporations and megaprojects from Indigenous
9. We urge that states recognize water as a fundamental human right,
avoiding its privatization and commodification.
10. We demand the application of consultations, participation, and
the Free, Prior and Informed Consent of Indigenous Peoples and affected
populations in the design and implementation of climate change
adaptation and mitigation measures and any other intervening actions on
11. States must promote mechanisms to guarantee that funding for
climate change action arrives directly and effectively to Indigenous
Peoples, as part of the compensation for the historical and ecological
debt owed. This funding must support and strengthen our own visions and
cosmovisions towards “living well”.
12. We call for the recovery, revalidation and strengthening of
Indigenous Peoples’ technologies and knowledge, and for their
incorporation into the research, design and implementation of climate
change policies. This should compliment Western knowledge and
technology, ensuring that technology transfer processes do not weaken
indigenous knowledge and technologies.
13. We propose the recovery, development and diffusion of indigenous
knowledge and technology through the implementation of educational
policies and programs, including the modification and incorporation of
such knowledge and ancestral wisdom in curricula and teaching methods.
14. We urge States and international bodies that are making decisions
about climate change, especially the UNFCCC, to establish formal
structures and mechanisms that include the full and effective
participation of Indigenous Peoples. They must also include local
communities and vulnerable groups, including women, without
discrimination, as a key element to obtain a fair and equitable result
from climate change negotiations.
15. We join in the demand to create a Climate Justice Tribunal that
would be able to pass judgement and establish penalties for
non-compliance of agreements, and other environmental crimes by
developed countries, which are primarily responsible for climate change.
This institution must consider the full and effective participation of
Indigenous Peoples, and their principles of justice.
16. We propose the organization and coordination of Indigenous
Peoples worldwide, through our local, national, regional, and
international governments, organizations, and other mechanisms of
legitimate representation, in order to participate in all climate change
related processes. With that in mind, we call for an organizational
space to be created that will contribute to the global search for
effective solutions to climate change, with the special participation of
17. We propose to fight in all spaces available to defend life and
Mother Earth, particularly in COP16, and so we propose a 2nd Peoples’
Conference to strengthen the process of reflection and action.
18. The ratification of the global campaign to organize the World
March in defense of Mother Earth and her peoples, against the
commodification of life, pollution, and the criminalization of
Indigenous and social movements.
Created in unity in Tiquipaya, Cochabamba, Bolivia, the 21st day
of April, 2010.
9. International Tribunal of Climate and Environmental Justice
Final conclusions of Working Group 5 on the Climate Justice Tribunal. Text from PWCCC.
* * *
The peoples of the world have gathered at the World People’s
Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth in the city
of Cochabamba, Bolivia, from 19 to 22 April, 2010. We, the Working
Group of the Tribunal for Climate Justice, have made the following
- Considering the lack of political will by developed countries to
fulfill their commitments and obligations under the UN Framework
Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, and faced with the
absence of an international legal framework to prevent and punish the
climate and environmental crimes that violate the rights of Mother Earth
and humanity, we demand the creation of an International Tribunal of
Climate and Environmental Justice that has the legally binding capacity
to prevent, judge and punish those states, companies and individuals who pollute and cause climate change by their actions or omissions.
- The International Tribunal of Climate and Environmental Justice
should have the authority to judge, civilly and criminally, states,
multilateral organisations, transnational corporations, and any legal
persons responsible for aggravating the causes and impacts of climate
change and environmental destruction against Mother Earth. Claims may be
made by all peoples, nations, nationalities, states, individuals or
corporations who have been affected, without having exhausted national
- The International Tribunal of Climate and Environmental Justice
should consist of representatives of the peoples, nations, nationalities
and states committed to respect and uphold the principles of this
court, with international jurisdiction and competence.
The Working Group on Climate Justice Tribunal makes the following
- We call upon the peoples of the world to use existing legal
mechanisms and laws in their countries to prosecute and punish those who
harm Mother Earth and humanity and whose actions or omissions aggravate
the causes and impacts of climate change, demanding the immediate
cessation of activities.
- We call upon the peoples of the world to join the struggle and
mobilisation for the consolidation of the International Tribunal of
Climate and Environmental Justice, and to put pressure on governments
that do not meet their commitments under the UN Framework Convention on
Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol.
- We call upon the peoples of the world to educate and raise awareness
about the dangers caused by an economic system based on economic
growth, the accumulation of profit and consumerism.
- We urge the peoples of the world to propose and promote a thorough
reform of the United Nations, in order that all member states comply
with the decisions of the International Tribunal of Climate and
- We urge the peoples of the world to further discussions on the
independence, involvement and formation of the International Tribunal of
Climate and Environmental Justice in relation to existing multilateral
- We call upon the peoples of the world to join the struggle and the
mobilisation that is behind the ethical International People’s Tribunal
on Ecological Debt and Climate Justice.
- We encourage states to submit claims before the International Court
of Justice against developed countries that are failing to fulfill their
commitments under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change and the Kyoto Protocol, including the commitment to reduce
greenhouse gases emissions.
10. Dangers of the carbon market
Final conclusions of working group 15. Text from PWCCC.
- The absolute failure of carbon market is undeniable as greenhouse
gases emissions (GHG) have increased by 11.2%  within developed
countries from 1990 to 2007; therefore it has failed in the compliance
of its main objective.
- In 2008 GHG emission rights were assigned for a quantity four times
bigger than the emissions of 1990. In the same period, total
transactions of carbon credit reached US$126.346 million from which
73% corresponded to emission allowances , amount that benefited
- Carbon market encourages developed countries to avoid their
responsibilities. Thus, it hinders the reduction of their own domestic
emissions, transferring their responsibilities towards developing
- Carbon market has transformed GHG reductions into a lucrative
business, commodifying our Mother Earth. It does not represent ethically
any alternative to confront climate change, since it plunders and
devastates the earth, water and even life itself.
- The recent financial crisis has shown that the market is unable to
regulate the financial system which is fragile and insecure due to
speculation and the raise of intermidiateries; therefore it would be
totally irresponsible to leave the very existence of humanity and our
Mother Earth under their care and protection.
- We reject the land use change that implies the exclusion of
existing ecosystems in order to transform them into large scale
plantations of quick-growing exotic species as the eucalyptus. Thus,
soils will not act as carbon sinks and are at risk of becoming carbon
source, further contributing to the greenhouse effect.
- We condemn the use of excessive emission limits, “hot air”, assigned
to the transition economies (former Soviet Union) for the compliance of
developed countries commitments.
- We demand that the preservation of ecological centres that help to
the control and capture of emissions deserves indemnification from
developed countries outside the carbon market. These resources have to
be submitted to the sovereignty of people and national states, and not
through the carbon market.
- We reject false solutions promoted by the carbon market as: CDM,
tree plantations, monocultures, transgenic crops, mega-mining,
geo-engineering, mega-infrastructure projects (IIRSA) or plans for
capture and storage of CO2 and nuclear energy.
- It is unacceptable that current negotiations pretend the creation of
new mechanisms to expand and promote carbon market, once all existing
mechanisms never solved the problem of climate change or were
transformed into real action and direct GHG reduction.
- We strongly condemn the carbon market and we oppose any attempt to
expand and create new mechanisms such as those established in the
“Life of humanity and Mother Earth is not bought or sold, it is
recovered and defended”
We urge and call upo all human being to join and take action to
defend life and the survival of Mother Earth.
- Informe Convención Marco sobre el cambio climático CMCC (21 Oct
- Report: State and Trends of the carbon markets 2009, World Bank http://wbcarbonfinance.org/docs/State___Trends_of_the_Carbon_Market_2009-FINAL_26_May09.pdf.
- Geo-engineering (the deliberate, large-scale manipulation of
the planet's systems such as those related to the stratosphere or the
ocean) to delay or reduce climate change, is the most dangerous attempt
to use untried technologies to profit from carbon trading. Even more
alarming, some industrialised countries and corporations are pretending
that geoengineering is a planetary techno-fix that will allow the rich
to continue to plunder Mother Earth without restraint. Geoengineering
must be rejected.
11. Working Group
No. 10 on the Kyoto Protocol and greenhouse gas emissions
Text from PWCCC.
Listening to the international call in defence of Mother Earth, the
peoples and nations of the world have gathered at this conference to
generate different proposals such as this one presented by Working Group
No. 10 on the Kyoto Protocol and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
reduction commitments by developed countries:
note that this conference was noticeably infused with values such as harmony with nature, “living well” and the rights of Mother Earth;
essential values not considered in the Kyoto Protocol,
Being conscious of the fact that climate change is a problem for all
and can only be resolved by all, it is not possible to ignore us and our
thinking and worldview, as a part of humanity that demands the balance
of nature. The equilibrium has been grossly altered primarily by the
uncontrolled anthropogenic GHG emissions due to a capitalist development
model based on the extraction of fossil fuels,
We reaffirm the principle of common but differentiated
responsibilities and it is in this context that we demand that developed
countries take the lead in combating climate change and its adverse
We note the Kyoto Protocol has established the market mechanisms as
one of the ways for developed countries to avoid their domestic GHG
emissions reduction obligations, and this demands its profound revision.
We cannot and must not forget that developed countries adopted this
legally binding instrument, nevertheless we alert the world to the fact
that these countries’ emissions grew by 11.2% between 1990 and 2007,
despite their commitments assumed in the Kyoto Protocol. It is evident
that their commitments will be violated,
We deplore the attempts by a group of countries to terminate the
Kyoto Protocol, the only legally binding instrument for the specific GHG
emission reductions by developed countries,
We reject the intent to compel us to adopt the mis-named “Copenhagen
Accord” which allows developed countries to offer insufficient GHG
emissions reductions based on individual and voluntary commitments, which
manifestly and evidently violate the environmental integrity of Mother
Earth and transgresses the international legally binding rules set by
the Kyoto Protocol,
Aware that the outcome of this conference will instruct the next UN
Climate Change Conference in Mexico,
We, the peoples and nations assembled in the city of Cochabamba as
defenders of Mother Earth, raise our voice to:
Declare developed countries primarily responsible for the slow death
of Planet Earth.
Call on the peoples and civil society of the developed world to
demand that their governments respect and comply with their commitments
under the Kyoto Protocol.
Denounce the mockery by developed countries in proposing a system
under the Copenhagen Accord that, in the way that things occur in
nature, would result in an insufficient reduction of GHG emissions, at a
maximum of 12-19% by 2020 in reference to 1990 levels. This would be
even less if we take into account carbon markets and other legal
loopholes, in this way selling our Mother Earth.
It is necessary that at the next UN Climate Change Conference in
Mexico, the amendment to the Kyoto Protocol be adopted for its second
commitment period from 2013 to 2017 in which developed countries must
commit to significant domestic GHG emission reductions of at least 50%
in reference to 1990 levels. The emission reductions of developed
countries must be achieved domestically, without the use of carbon
markets or any other offsetting mechanisms that allows them to avoid the
adoption of real measures to reduce emissions.
Any just and effective solution to determine the future GHG emission
reductions by developed countries must consider their historic
responsibility and climate debt, based on per capita emissions. It must
also consider the liberation of atmospheric space needed by developing
countries for their growth, the loss of benefits to developing countries
reflecting the unavailability of their fair share of atmospheric space,
and the damage caused to Mother Earth.
Developed countries’ GHG emission reduction commitments under the
Kyoto Protocol must be an adequate contribution towards achieving a
limit on global emissions sufficient to return GHG concentrations to
well below 300 ppm CO2eq and limit average temperature rise to well
below 1°C with a view to returning concentrations and temperatures as
close as possible to pre-industrial levels in the longer term. The
current pledges under the Copenhagen Accord would lead to a global
temperature rise of around 4°C.
The GHG emissions reduction commitments must permit the return to the
natural equilibrium leading to the environmental integrity necessary for
Planet Earth. This requires establishing a target for the group of
developed countries and later each country’s individual assignment
permitting the comparison of efforts between each one of them, and
maintaining the system of the Kyoto Protocol for emission reductions.
The establishment of timely and effective sanctions against developed
countries for not meeting their GHG emission reduction commitments
could generate funds to compensate for the damage caused to developing
countries. This will generate financial resources that do not originate
from the carbon market, or the financial obligations currently
established by the UNFCCC.
We propose the creation of a Global Council in Defence of Mother
Earth as a control mechanism, to verify the effective and real
compliance of developed countries to their GHG emission reduction
commitments, to be led by the least-polluting countries, Indigenous
peoples, rural communities and social organisations.
The United States of America being the only developed country on the
planet that has not ratified the Kyoto Protocol and with the sufficient
capacity to cause climate change on its own, has a significant
responsibility to all nations of the world, including its own people. It
must therefore work with the international community by ratifying the
Kyoto Protocol, committing itself to respect and fulfil economy wide GHG
emission reduction targets.
We demand that the Kyoto Protocol respects the Universal Declaration
on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, and permits their effective
participation in voice and vote.
Education policies must create effective mechanisms to combat climate
change. This is the reason why we call on world governments to generate
massive education actions so that each citizen knows about climate
change, and knows which measures to take to combat it.
12. Working Group 13: Intercultural dialogue knowledge sharing, knowledge and technology
Text from PWCCC.
The World People’s Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of
Mother Earth – Working Group 13: Intercultural Dialogue Knowledge
Sharing, Knowledge and Technology, gathered in the city of Cochabamba 19
to April 22, 2010, reached the following agreements:
Sharing knowledge of appropriate technologies is
essential if we fight the climate crisis. To reduce emissions over the
next decade, and to respond to the growing damage caused by climate
change, we must implement socially and environmentally healthy
technologies in each country, each sector and in every place to help us
for “living well” and live in harmony with all and each of us and Mother
Share appropriate technologies is a necessary condition to solve
climate change, but not sufficient, because the consumption patterns and
lifestyles of excessive consumption must change fundamentally. The
model of life and development within the capitalist system should be
fundamentally changed. Therefore, the development of knowledge and
technology should be viewed as an integral part of a broader effort to
address the underlying, structural and roots causes of climate change.
Thus, we recognise and revalue the appropriate local technologies,
which should be developed to overcome the climate crisis.
We reject the proposed technology transfer in vertical position, from
the rich and producing more pollution, to countries in the process of
social transformation. Instead we designed a free exchange of
information, knowledge and technologies, coordinated between the
governments and peoples under the principles of solidarity, reciprocity,
respect, complementarity, harmony, transparency, balance and equality
of conditions, promoting the dialogue of knowledge and interscientific
dialogue as a guarantee of development and innovation of clean
technologies for the cessation in the production of greenhouse gases and
all kinds of environmental damage that threatens the Mother Earth.
ECOLOGICAL EDUCATION AND CREATION OF CAPACITIES
The knowledge is universal, and for any reason may be the subject of
private ownership and private use, nor its applications in the form of
technology. It is the duty of the peoples to give back knowledge and
technology to the people, and defend and promote their development and
application for LIFE.
1) Democratise and strengthen appropriate
educational policies that enhance sustainable and ecological development
as an integral part in the curriculum in the education systems being
these formal or not formal at national and international levels going
through all areas and subjects of the global and universal education, in
a more systematic and sustained way, to change skills, behaviours and
habits to climate change.
2) Raise awareness, enhance, empower and develop
permanently, committing the population to generate a culture on the
importance of the environment in life as a change agent or through
research and development of technologies that respond to the diverse
needs of each populace.
The technological education should be based on the following areas:
a) Environmental education and research.
The general goal is to get governments around the world foster global
awareness on climate change.
Likewise, a curriculum reform that positions and integrate education,
science and culture as a tool to generate real solutions to climate
change and global warming, on the basis of knowledge dialogue and the
interscientific dialogue between science and Western technology and
technology and the ancestral knowledge of the peoples.
The specific objectives of this education are:
• Achieve a digital education for creation of capacities.
• Create a platform of solidarity for exchanging information,
knowledge and technologies among nations.
The basis of this environmental education is to build and strengthen
appropriate educational policies that enhance environmental
sustainability, incorporating into the curriculum in education systems
at national and international systemic advantage and sustainable manner
to all areas and subjects of education achieving global and universal
changes in attitudes, behaviours and habits to face climate change.
The objectives and policies of “national education systems”, amongst
other are the following:
- Improve education, turning it relevant to the needs of the
community in regard to climate change and greenhouse effect expanding
their coverage and retention of students in the educational system to be
considered a right and obligation the respect for Mother Earth.
- Structure and develop an educational concept based on the knowledge
that “Mother Earth does not belong to us, we belong to it”, basing this
claim on research, creativity of ancestral wisdom, the uses and
customs, transmitting this knowledge into based learning experiences.
2. COMMUNITARY EDUCATION
2.1 General objective
The communal education of respect for nature and Mother Earth –
Pachamama, recovering the ancestral cultural knowledge and technologies
to improve production and sustained productivity, respect the cultures
of indigenous peoples.
2.2 Specific objectives
1. Traditional education on practical application in
our communities, through the ancestral knowledge.
2. Recovery and transmission of the worldviews of
peoples of respect for nature.
3. The use and management of soil in a sustainable
4. The environmental education inside the classroom,
agriculture and communities.
5. Intracultural and intercultural: regarding what
6. The transmission of communal agro-ecological
education and its incorporation into traditional formal education,
ancient and Western.
7. The incorporation of environmental and popular
1. Recovery, dynamic and systematic application of
appropriate knowledge and ancestral knowledge.
2. The introduction of Indigenous languages in the
plans for formal education at primary and secondary education levels as
well at university.
3. Use of clean and appropriate technology for rural
development in harmony between the traditional knowledge and natives of
Western origin knowledge
4. Maintain and enhance uses and customs of
traditional herbal medicine.
2. OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO DEVELOPMENT AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER
– INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
It is essential to require compliance with the commitments made by
developed countries at the United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change regarding the development and transfer of technology and
reject the “technological showcase” proposed by developed countries
given that they only commercialise the technology and promote and
enhance the development of local technologies.
All that clean technology, necessary and useful to tackle climate
change should be made public for the common good and not covered by
intellectual property rights.
Create in each country and worldwide a bank of knowledge, with
technologies aimed at reversing climate change and environmental crisis
to ensure truly sustainable development that is available to all peoples
of the world, being consistent that knowledge belongs to everyone not
those who’ve been wanting to privatise it.
Formation of a platform for exchange of information, knowledge and
technology of free assignment, administered and maintained collectively
by the people, that is, open knowledge technology in respect of the
sovereignty of peoples.
The Climate Justice Tribunal will be responsible for ensuring forced
compliance with these commitments on the basis of the UNFCCC and with
the purpose that developed countries solve the development of clean
technologies at the level of developing countries to finance progress,
recognising the intellectual effort of individuals or entities that have
developed these technologies free from intellectual property rights due
to environmental and heath global issues, eliminating in this sense
barriers such as overprices and patents.
For these purposes it is necessary to prevent the transfer of
inappropriate technology, obsolete and which involve an environmental
It is proposed to assert the interests of developing countries that
build their endogenous intellectual property, assign greater
responsibility on developed countries, outweigh the equity between the
various countries, conducting a nationwide monitoring of each country on
technology transfer, and be national policies that define how to run
The main objectives pursued are to destroy the barriers that limit
and restrict the transfer of technology through:
• Own development of technologies based on knowledge and studies
conducted in each country, with the states that promote science and
technology, but also with existing international plans of their
momentum, with state policies and subsidies with economic amounts
specifically bound to the development of research.
• Request and require the use of clean technologies to various
private and public companies to ensure their accountability and ensure
their mandatory use.
• The development of internal capabilities.
• Environmental technologies accessible to the public without being
subject to personal gain and privilege.
• Training of experts in each developing country, so that they can
specialise abroad and return to their countries and teach at an internal
• The signing of international agreements that integrate all
developing countries with the aim of making the technology transfer
process more simple and clear.
• The support of the governments to foster the technological
empowerment of the peoples.
3. MONITORING OF THE EXCHANGE OF CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES
It is essential to establish guidelines for creating a multilateral,
multidisciplinary and participatory control, management and continuous
evaluation of the exchange of technologies, which should be very
helpful, clean and socially appropriate.
This mechanism would consist of social and scientists experts in all
areas, chosen by competition of knowledge, proposed by states, regional
organisms and would have as main functions:
1) The assessment of new technologies.
2) Identifying the needs of countries TO PROMOTE
sustainable endogenous development through:
• Identifying opportunities for environmental development.
• The pursuit of technologies for harnessing renewable sources of
• The search for potential water sources.
• The revaluation of traditional medicines
• Active participation and social control over and in technology
• The creation of collective-owned enterprises.
3) The identification of the problems that these go
• Lack of sufficient policy and regulatory frameworks.
• Lack of monitoring to mitigation and compensation measures.
Create and manage a Fund for Development and Technology Transfer that is responsible for the channelling of funding and the identification
of funders between Annex 1 countries of the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change, i.e. the most polluting developed
countries are obliged to donate, finance and transfer technology.
Also, this fund will provide for a Global Inventory of Existing
Environmental Technologies, open source, free of charge and not
restricted by intellectual property rights. Similarly it will count with regional groups of experts in investment and development by
geographical areas of the world that analyse, observe and examine
whether these technologies are suitable for countries and in case they
are not feasible, find a feasible solution.
4) Use the fund for the creation and strengthening
of capacities and the establishment of centres of research and
technological innovation to achieve that underpin technological
sovereignty of peoples, and promote the strengthening of activists
through universities, colleges, NGOs, foundations, corporations and
private and public outreach projects. Part of its funding will come from
taxes on private and public enterprises.
5) Report the breach in the commitments of countries
debtors responsible of climate change, commitments to development and
exchange of technology, Climate Justice Tribunal and procedural
6) The evaluation and selection of appropriate
technologies to the demands of society and of Mother Earth.
4. TECHNOLOGIES AND ANCESTRAL KNOWLEDGE
The world needs to recover, learn and relearn the principles and
approaches of the ancient legacy of Indigenous peoples to stop the
destruction of the planet, as well as the traditional knowledge and
practices and recover spirituality in the rehabilitation of the
well living with Mother Earth.
Humanity must understand and respect the knowledge and ancestral
wisdom of the people to stop the destruction of the planet, to have
harmony with all beings and in balance with Mother Earth for her to
leads us to live in the fullness of well living.
The recognition, appreciation and recreation of ancestral knowledge
and technologies as the basis for endogenous development of peoples,
while highlighting the complementary nature of knowledge and recognising
that the ancient technologies do not work alone, but go hand in hand
It is necessary to work on the recovery of the use of natural
indicators as a method and tool to generate information that helps to
make better decisions in a more lively and dynamic way to face climate
It is necessary to make a wake-up call to humanity to both the
participants in making political decisions as to the general public to
rethink the vision of “urban development” without the contempt for rural
areas, and conservation of the environment in a new rural-urban
It is imperative to promote intercultural dialogue and international
scientific exchange between nations for the exchange of technology and
knowledge, with the goal of achieving food security sovereignty,
respecting the dignity and rights of Mother Earth.
13. Final conclusions of Working Group 2:
Harmony with Nature to Live Well
Text from PWCCC.
The need for a new system
1. The model of capitalist development is a threat to life because it
prioritises consumerism and the generation of profits over common
well-being and the satisfaction of basic needs, denying the
interconnection that exists between human life and nature. This
anthropocentric model based on the private accumulation of wealth and
maximisation of economic growth generates inequality, poverty,
exclusion and environmental destruction. It is a model that destroyes
communities as well as nature.
of a new system
2. Given that capitalism is a threat to life itself, it is necessary
to forge a new system that reestablishes harmony with nature and among
human beings based on the principles of: equilibrium among all and with
all things, complementarity, solidarity, equity, justice, collective
consciousness and respect for diversity and spirituality.
3. A new system should recognise that human beings are part of
nature, that nature does not belong to us, and that we are
interdependent with nature. In this sense, we must view respect for
human rights and the rights of Mother Earth as articulated,
complementary and reciprocal processes.
4. To achieve harmony with nature requires the recuperation and
revalorisation of the various forms of knowledge, ancestral
technologies and local systems of production, distribution and
consumption that promote the maintenance of the regenerative capacity of
nature, as well as the fundamental principle of equality and peace
between diverse peoples and living things based on the notion of Mother
Earth as an integral entity.
5. Harmony with nature is not possible if equality does not exist
between human beings, between communities, nations and the environment.
This means leaving aside capitalism, imperialism, colonialism,
interventionism and the predatory practices that have brought us to a
situation in which one percent of the possibility controls 50% of
wealth, and 20% of the population consumes 80% of the total
Unlimited development versus harmony with nature
6. The division of the globe into “developed” and “developing” or
even “under-developed” countries reflects paradigms that have now been
relegated to history. Today, in the face of climate change and the
persistent degradation of the environment, our principal need is to
strengthen communities and recognise human beings for what they are, not
what they have. This should occur in the context of the recuperation
and revalorisation of the history of humanity and our Indigenous roots.
7. To achieve harmony with nature, peoples and their governments must
demonstrate sufficient capacity, conscience and political will to
govern with a non-anthropocentric mindset that emphasises life, thus
eliminating predatory practices and replacing them with a vision of life
in communion with nature. To achieve this, it is necessary to promote
unity among the peoples of the planet so that all might watch over
Mother Earth and life in harmony with nature.
8. Governments must generate investment and support for new and
existing sustainable technologies and the recovery of ancestral
technologies, which transform the processes leading to the satisfaction
of real human needs, adapting them to a framework of harmony with nature
at a global level, and especially at the local level, in which
environmental problems and the impacts of climate change primarily
affect the most vulnerable populations. To achieve this, it is
important to recognise the plurality of forms of knowledge and ancestral
practices, and transform scientific paradigms based on control over
nature toward paradigms oriented toward equilibrium with nature.
9. Because the Mother Earth is a living entity and subject to rights,
Living Well requires the protection and restoration of the integrity of
the ecosystems in order to Live Well, as well of the recognition of the
existence of universal natural patrimonies such as the atmosphere,
water, biodiversity, soil, subsoil and the land, which should be
respected and used appropriately, rather than seen as objects of
merchandise. Living Well depends also on the satisfaction of basic,
fundamental needs through equitable access to basic services such as
water, sanitation, housing and knowledge, which should be under the
control of society and never be privatized, with constant attention to
equilibrium and respect for nature.
10. A new system requires action; a change of mindset and the
consumerist practices of human beings, as well as the construction of a
collective, critical consciousness based on a continual questioning of
daily actions so that there may be adequate, balanced and respectful
use of the spaces and the universal natural patrimonies that belong to
us all. For this to occur, we must sensitise, educate and teach everyone
using new educational systems and new media that are based on the
principle of harmony with nature to Live Well and the need to care for
the spaces in which we live, including communities, countries and the
11. The construction of new paradigms such as Living Well and new
forms of harmony with nature requires the examination of different forms
of wisdom and experiences, and a collective evaluation of current
realities using new indicators that allow us to measure the impact of
human activity on the planet. These indicators should permit not just
knowledge of the present situation, but also serve as a basis for the
application of new laws that permit the application of environmental and
climate justice. These indicators may include the ecological footprint
and the Human Development Index (HDI), as well as others based on
ethical principles and Living Well.
12. Faced with the reality that the Earth’s regenerative capacity has
now been exceeded by more than 30% and that the current rate of
overexploitation, if continued, would require the resources of two
planets by the year 2030, it is essential to generate a new model that
is not one of unlimited and destructive development. Recognising that countries require a certain level of development to satisfy the
fundamental necessities of their populations, and that this should
involve the use of Earth-friendly technologies, alternatives based on
ancestral practices, and endogenous development, a new model of harmony
with nature can in no way be achieved if countries sustain the predatory
capitalist paradigm that has caused the richest nations to have an
ecological footprint five times larger than what the planet is capable
of supporting. This situation jeopardises the existence of Mother Earth
and the survival and well-being of all peoples.
Cochabamba, Bolivia, April 21, 2010
14. Final conclusions Working Group 6: Climate Change and Migration
Text from PWCCC.
Causes and consequences of climatic migration
Climatic migrations happen in the context of the developmental
pattern associated with the capitalist system. On one hand, this pattern
enables states and transtantional entities to overexploit natural
resources and to degrade the environment, forcing persons and families
to emigrate. A good example of this situation are massive projects that
utilise basic resources like soil, fauna and local flora (like mining
and dams), and that happen with the permission of governments.
Several different places of the planet are turning into ejecting
zones as a consequence of climate change, this situation forces the
displacement of people because of the shortages in the regular supply of
food and water, as well as the increase in the frequency and severity
of floods, or storms, or on the contrary of droughts.
In the other hand, the developmental pattern of capitalism is
benefited by the overexploitation of immigrant labour. Even though this
overexploitation situation is shared by the economically impulsed
immigrants, those who we would consider climate immigrants are a
by-product of the degradation of the planet, the situation that forces them
to look for new places to live. Among the main environmental causes that
determine migration we find: climate change (desertification,
deforestation, soil degradation, water contamination, hurricanes or
floods) and human-generated disasters (industrial accidents,
radioactivity and many others)
Both situations imply violations of human rights of migrant people,
and the worsening of inequity; mainly in the countries of the global South; their
population is forced to move with dramatic impacts on the environment in
the places that receive them too, closing a rights violation
First of all, people’s right not to migrate and to stay in their own
territory is being violated, hence the fact that degradation of their
own territories is generating the abandonment of rural communities,
where occasionally only elders are left. Second, in the cities, the ones
that migrate rely on low wages and exploitation conditions, with their
right to a dignifying job violated, making the poverty levels even
worse and therefore denying access to basic rights like housing,
health and education. This reality is most times boosted by people-trafficking networks, which can turn people into merchandise. Third,
through the militarisation of borders, and the criminalisation of
migrants, abuses against them are institutionalised and high levels of
discrimination are generated, this as a matter of fact, eventually turns
into another obstacle for the access to all of their rights. Fourth and
last, the developmental pattern of capitalism is imposing migration on
people from their own land, this violates the basic right to move
At a global scale, migration that is imposed by climate causes
increases the pressure over basic services, damaging economic growth and
increasing the risk of conflicts. Furthermore, climate migration
contributes to the unmeasured growth of cities where millions of people
live; and where migrants will live in poor and not privileged zones,
with scarce and deficient drinking water services and limited access to
economic, social and cultural rights.
Some other consequences of forced
migration induced by climate are the chaos in production systems
(this affects farmers, Indigenous peoples, fisherfolk among many
others) and the weakening of the internal market. Aside the loss of
“human capital”, in the form of work force and education investment,
migration contributes to an even worse limited economic opportunities
scenario, which will generate future migration as well.
Many people lose bonds with their
ancestral knowledge and customs, given that these are related to their
territory, and while being forced to lose these bonds they will have to
adopt a completely different way of life. The great-scale displacement
of people may rearrange the ethnic maps of many different countries,
shortening the distance between groups that once lived separated, and
forcing them to compete for the same resources.
We must take notice that this situation is even worse for specific
groups of the migrating population; this is the case of Indigenous
women, children and youth.
In summary, as environmental degradation and climate change reach a critical level, internal and international migration is one of the main consequences. According to some projections in 1995 there were 25
million climate migrants, today it is estimated that there are 50
million, and projections for 2050 go anywhere from 200 million to 1000 million
people to be displaced because of situations derived from climate
change. This will provoke supplies to be scarcer, e.g. water and food,
as well as the increase of the frequency and severity of floods and
storms, this entire scenario will worsen the cycle in which climate
migrants will find themselves with no shelter unless we start acting
Facing these considerations, the definitions that try to reflect
these realities are as follows:
- Climate refugees: Those people forced to
evacuate their territory because of climate change. If there is no
international right, particularly in the Geneve statutes, it is
necessary to insert this category so that the countries assume their
responsibilities when it comes to this situation. This consideration is
in the same line as the one stated by Jean Ziegler, special rapporteur
in the right to food on his 2007 report, where he states that there is
little to no difference between a person who is facing death because
of famine and a person that is threatened by arbitrary execution to
their political convictions. He proposed the creation of a legal
instrument to protect these people, acknowledging them as famine
refugees, and providing them with the right to temporary protection and
no forced return, with the intention for them not to be returned to a
country where hunger and famine threaten their lives.
- Forced migrants: Those people who are forced to
migrate not only because of climate change-related reasons, but also
because of economic factors. The term climate migrant narrows the
problem leaving out workers who have been forced to leave their
countries because of working reasons and may distract of the underlying
structural reasons as a global phenomenon. The term “forced migrant”
will oppose the one from a migrant that moves freely.
- Climate-displaced people: Those who are forcibly displaceed because of climate reasons, both inside and outside their
own countries. There is a need to create a legal status to protect
those who find themselves in this situation, due to the lack of
international recognition of the people in displacement, aside from the
ones that migrate or ask for refuge.
- We demand all international covenants, both the ones that are
subscribed in the framework of the UN through complimentary protocols or
alternate amendments, and those subscribed in other instances, e.g.
ALBA, UNASUR, Comunidad de los estados de Latinoamérica y Caribe, to
contemplate the definition of climate migrants , both for
people as for communities, in a fashion that all the states of the
world glimpse the rights of these people in their definitions and
- There must be a design for global and local policies to face climate
change, that incorporates and respects democratic participation of all
of the countries, and a wide participation of peoples and territories
involved in the defence of their communities and the rights of Mother
- We demand political, economic, social and cultural patterns, in
which the right to move and displace freely is respected, also a pattern
that respects the right not to migrate and not to be displaced by force,
recovering the ancestral technologies and cosmovision when to build a
pattern of development framed in peoples’ vision of living well, that
implies respect and harmony with Mother Earth, patterns that should
oppose to “developmental” and extractivistic practices of the
capitalistic world system, that determine poverty, inequity, misery,
deterioration of Mother Earth and migration.
- The promotion of a human rights treaty for climate migrants,
recognised and applicable at a global scale, one of binding character
and therefore claimable. So that climate migrants have the same rights
and obligations as the citizens of the country of destination.
- The creation of an international institution of the
peoples that promotes permanent research on current political, social,
cultural and economic situation of climate migrants.
- To demand the creation of an economic fund, funded mainly by the
countries on the centre of capitalism and huge transnational
corporations, that are held main responsible for climate change,
destined to meet the needs of both internal and international climatic
migrants. This fund will be administrated by the climate justice court,
or by another body constituted by the peoples and communities
affected by climate change; there must be a respect for the principles
of differentiated responsibilities of the countries, according to the
size or seriousness of the damage caused.
- As an international policy, technology transfer must be generated
from the capitalist countries as part of the recognition and honour to
their historical climate debt, this technology must be compatible with
the rights of Mother Earth and must encourage food and energy
sovereignty, as well as other economic alternatives that have
communities and their harmonious relationship with Mother Earth as their
- Creation of a people's commission for the monitoring and follow-up
of the agreements on climate migration adopted by this World Peoples’ Conference on Climate Change and Rights of Mother Earth.
- Support for the constitution of an international court
to denounce, make visible, document, judge and punish violationsof the rights of migrants, refugees and displaced people, in their own
countries, while in transit, or in destination.
- Respect for the right to prior consultation and free consent
of the communities, which as a consequence of natural disasters are
forced to migrate or to displace from their original territory. The
right of communities and peoples not to migrate or displace unfairly
and forcibly from their territories by eviction or plundering means
exerted by states, transnational corporations and other armed actors.
 The term climate migrant, is also a figure in which
the terms climate displaced, climate refugees or forced migrants are
15. Final conclusions Working Group
Text from PWCCC.
Recognising that native forests and
jungles partake in both functions and processes of life in the planet
and its vital importance in climate processes, as well as its
vulnerability to climate change, the participants in the World
People’s Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth demand
that members of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC) include in their discussions and resolutions the
1. DEFINITION. The definition of forest that
includes plantations, as used heretofore in UNFCCC negotiations, is
unacceptable. Monocultures are not forests. Therefore, we
demand a definition for negotiations on climate that recognises that
native forests and jungles (forest hills, temperate forests, dry
forests, mangroves, native Andean forests, Patagonian forests, paramo or
moorlands, wetlands, reedbeds, rattan fields, and other ecosystems on
earth) are rooted in Mother Earth, and are the big home where plants,
animals, water, soil, pure air, and human and spiritual beings coexist.
Native forests and jungles contribute to life by:
1) protecting fragile
2) participating in the water cycle and in watershed
3) protecting us from floods, erosion, natural disasters,
pests and diseases
4) adding to food sovereignty
shelter; natural, ancestral and traditional medicine; and non-timber
and timber goods
6) housing biodiversity and unrevealed natural healing
As a result, we find it inacceptable to reduce native forests
and jungles to a mere measurable amount of carbon or to the providers
2. RIGHTS. The UN Declaration on the Rights of
Indigenous Peoples must be fully recognised, implemented and included
by the parties in UNFCCC discussions, taking into account, specially,
that most of the forests and jungles are in the lands of Indigenous peoples and nations, Indigenous people and communities that live in
forest, populations of African descent; peasant, aborigine, ancestral and traditional communities (henceforth called the Peoples).
We demand the acknowledgment of Peoples’ collective rights to their
lands and territories as the best strategy and as a priority in
preventing deforestation and forest degradation and in protecting native
forests and jungles. The Peoples are
ancestral protectors, conservators and dwellers of their native forests
and jungles; they are autonomous and sovereigns of inalienable,
indefeasible, unatachable, and non transferable territories. Similarly,
the role of women and children in preserving cultures and conserving
native forests and jungles must be recognised.
3. CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION/THREATS. Deforestation
and forest degradation are the outcome of a historical process of
colonial exploitation, of the capitalist system, and of over-consuming
developed countries. The multilateral programmes of the World Bank, the
Inter-American Development Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and
other multilateral funding agencies and institutions are also
responsible for deforestation, for the unrestrained unfolding of
productive chains, for the advance of agricultural and industrial
frontiers and intensive stockbreeding, for the consumerist and
capitalist degradation patterns of the extractive model of mining, the
wood industry, shrimpers, agro-businesses and agrofuels, dams and
hydroelectric power plants, hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation,
constructions. Transnational pharmaceutical and biogenetic corporations
are accountable, too. The causes and threats of deforestation lie in the
pressure of humans alienated by the capitalist system, and in
unsustainable production and consumption development patterns imposed by
prevailing transnational corporations and designed by market laws that
turn trees, and forest and jungle resources into tradable goods.
4. REDD. We condemn neoliberal market mechanisms
such as the REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest
Degradation) mechanism and its + and ++ versions, as those ones
related with markets, that are violating our Peoples’
sovereignty and right to free informed prior consent; as well as the
sovereignty of national States. This mechanism is violating the rights,
uses, and customs of the Peoples and the rights of nature.
We demand instead that contaminating countries acknowledge their
ecological and climate historical debt, and transfer financial and
technological resources directly to the Peoples,
nations and ancestral Indigenous, aborigine, and peasant organic
structures so they can restore and maintain forests and jungles. Thus
can real funding of plans for a comprehensive life and for living well
be ensured with direct compensation, in addition to the funding
committed by developed countries, outside the carbon market, and never
used as offsets of carbon market. Consequently, we demand that
countries, when applicable, stop local forest and jungle market-based
initiatives that propose inexistent and conditioned results.
Tree plantations under CDM (Clean Development Mechanism)
within the Kyoto Protocol framework are a false solution that threatens
native forests and jungles and violates Peoples’
rights. Plantations for carbon credits as well as for agrofuels are a
false solution to climate change. The false solutions, like war and the
aggression to sovereign countries and territories, are driving Mother
Earth to exhaustion.
5. PROPOSALS. Solutions must be holistic, respect
Mother Earth and the rights of humanity, and promote a harmonious
integration of economic and environmental policies.
People’s ancestral knowledge, and community and local practices have
historically contributed to balance ecosystems, and should thus be
included as solutions to deforestation, forest and jungle degradation
and fragmentation. We propose forming a group of Experts on Climate
Change, not exclusively centred on scientific knowledge, but with the
full and effective participation and representation of the Peoples
who depend on native forests and jungles. This group
would be a UNFCCC advisory body that would promote forest conservation
in an ancestral way, fostering and strengthening people’s capacities,
revaluing their knowledge as world heritage and thus valuing their
cultural identity. There should be at least a 50% participation of
- The direct involvement of organised Peoples
in the management and administration of protected areas must be
promoted in all countries as part of policies integrating Peoples
and directly relating native forests and jungles, territory and water
- Degraded native forests, ecological floors and basins must be
recovered without the intervention of capitalism-related actions or the
promotion of perverse covert actions, like tree plantations strictly
targeting the carbon market and not full forest recovery.
- Institute a new process where Peoples who depend on forests and
jungles participate fully and effectively in all actions to manage and
- Countries must abolish forest concessions, since historically these
concessions have had intensive mercantile purposes and have expanded
with no respect for harmony with Mother Earth.
- Conventional formal education based on maximum productivity does not
agree with the ancestral knowledge of an integrated conservation
management of forests and jungles. In consequence, governments are asked
to complement study plans at primary, secondary, and university levels
with ancestral knowledge.
- We demand from governments a World Program of Ecological Forest
and Jungle Restoration directed by the Peoples.
- Implement and consolidate forest seed banks, of autochthonous
fruits and flowers, according to the location.
- Change structural laws to enforce drastic punishment for slashing
and burning native forests and jungles.
- Encourage the union of agriculture and native forests and jungles
as the components of a whole entity.
- Support initiatives like that of the Yasuni ITT, Ecuador, to leave
petroleum under the earth, forgo the exploitation of hydrocarbons in
native forests and jungles, and seek biodiversity preservation and
respect for life.
16. Final conclusions of Working Group
11 -- Adaptation: Confronting Climate Change
Text from PWCCC.
1. As Peoples gathered at the “World People’s Conference on Climate
Change and the Rights of Mother Earth”, collaborating with the Work
Group No. 11, Adaptation: Confronting Climate Change, we propose the
following conclusions so that they are considered in the process towards
the COP16 of Mexico and fundamentally to protect Mother Earth.
Vulnerability and climate change impacts
2. Mother Earth and all forms of life that exist are every day more
vulnerable to climate change due to the effect of an historical
industrial wild development generated by the developed countries and
that put in high risk the survival of the species.
3. The Peoples are vulnerable because of their geographical place,
their development condition, their level of exposition to events caused
by climate change and their capacity to confront the impacts.
4. The fresh water is every day scarcer, the glaciers of the whole
world are disappearing, in particular in mountain range zones, which
implies the lack of healthy water for life, for ecosystems, for food
production and for all forms of life. Likewise, droughts are putting in
risk the food sovereignty of the Peoples.
5. The level and temperature increase of the sea are causing: the
death of reefs, species and seashores’ extinction, with big economic
losses for the Peoples that live near those areas.
6. Floods are more frequent and severe and affect human safety,
infrastructure loss, and complete displacement of Peoples and species.
The cyclical events deepen these impacts.
7. Agriculture, in particular the one for rural and indigenous
communities’ subsistence, is in real danger because of climate change,
and the changes in seasons, also due to a greater presence of plagues
and illness, which will deeply affect the mother-child nourishment
levels and will also affect the increase of climate migrants. The
damages caused to forests and ecosystems, and the loss of biodiversity
are impacts with an increasing frequency, which particularly affect the
rural and indigenous communities that have these ecosystems as part of
their livelihood. Likewise, the communities themselves are seeing how
their bioindicators are affected and the erosion of their ancestral
8. The appearance and re-emergence of transmissible illness are every
time greater, malaria, dengue, diarrhea and respiratory illnesses, are
increasing the morbidity and mortality rates, especially infant
mortality, and extreme events are causing a greater number of human
injuries and loss, including impacts at psychological level. At the same
time, social and gender vulnerability are present.
9. Urban and peri-urban communities, which are the result of rural
exodus, are alsoobject of the impacts of climate change due to
conditions of high poverty and lack of services. Also, new forms of
consumption are determinant factors that influence the impacts.
10. In general, the economic, social, cultural and human development
countries are seriously impacted by climate change, compromising the
well-being of future generations, placing living beings in a risk point
of serious consequences. Also, the economic – social inequity itself is a
generator of vulnerability towards climate change.
Facing the impacts of climate change
11. The Peoples reject the notion of adaptation to climate change
understood as the resignation to the impacts of climate change not
provoked by our countries. This change is caused by the capitalism model
and consumption since the industrial revolution. It is the developed
countries who must adapt their lifestyles and consumption to confront this
planetary emergency. As real responsibles for this problem, they must
mitigate the impact to Mother Earth changing their economic models of
development, production and consumption with fewer emissions of
greenhouse effect gases. The responsibility of providing with the
necessary resources so that the Peoples can confront these impacts and
defend life and Mother Earth relies on the developed countries, who now
force us to face inevitable changes.
12. Considering these impacts, caused by this model of consumption,
the Peoples, including those in the developed countries, are forced to
confront climate change, without resigning themselves to accepting the
impacts, but instead considering adaptation as a process and not an
imposition, and also as a tool that should be used to resist these
impacts and especially to protect and to defend Mother Earth and all
forms of life, demonstrating that it is possible to live in harmony with
life under a different life model. The adaptation cannot be considered
to be the solution in itself. Mother Earth and the Peoples cannot live
eternally adapting themselves to an irresponsible life style by a
minority of the Planet.
13. It is urgent that our developing countries establish policies and
strategic lines to confront climate change so that these allow the
possibility to be defined also at global, regional, local and community
levels and through the integral management of: climate risks, natural
resources, water, basins including glaciers, soils, agricultural
biodiversity, energy, waste management, territory planning,
environmental and strategic education, capacity building strengthening
at all levels, free access to information and revaluation of ancestral
knowledge, in search of a fundamental change of paradigm that allows us
to protect and to take care of Mother Earth and all its forms of life.
14. To work in contingency and prevention plans, recognizing amongst
others; the vital role of women, in order to confront climate risks,
forced migrations of living beings, the loss of crops and illnesses, as
well as to work towards nature´s balance, must be of international
priority. To promote measures to transfer climate-risk from developing
countries to developed countries through the States.
15. It is established that the recovery and revaluation of the
ancestral knowledge, engineering and techniques, the ceremonial centers,
and rituality allow to confront the impacts of climate change in
complementarity with scientific knowledge.
16. Our countries, as an example of sensibility towards Mother Earth,
ratify the commitment to implement actions to face climate change, to
work on the development of our own technologies and to promote
autonomous processes of capacity building and investigation.
The costs and financing responsibility
17. The industrialized countries have the moral and legal obligation
to pay the totality of the historical and future adaptation debt with
the urgent and immediate provision of financial resources and technology
transfer and application, without conditions, to developing countries
to confront the impacts of climate change and to provide economic
resources, technology for prevention and strengthening of response
capacities, to cover the cost of lost and diminished opportunities, and
to strengthen the role of women, the rural, indigenous communities and
of the children towards climate change. They must compensate the damages
for the impacts that already took place and the ones that will occur in
the future and for the loss of development opportunities, cultural and
services loss; compensation for extreme, climate and gradual events,
considering the additional costs that might arise if our planet exceeds
the ecological thresholds for the projected warming that threatens the
biocapacity of Mother Earth, as well as those impacts that are hindering
the development right to “living well” in harmony with the nature that
18. Also, the payment of the Adaptation Debt (which is part of the
Climate Debt) by the developed countries is not a permission so that
they can keep unsustainable systems of consumption that continue
affecting life negatively.
19. The Adaptation Fund must be maintained with the minimal
contribution per year of 2 % of the yearly GDP of the total 6% defined
in the financing section of the developed countries to exclusively confront the impacts of
climate change. These funds will have a character of compensation and
additional to the Official Development Assistance and applicable until
the developed countries reduce their emissions and climate stabilizes.
20. It is necessary to strengthen the Adaptation Fund as an
exclusive fund for confronting climate change impacts and that is part
of a financial mechanism managed and led in a sovereign and equitable
way by our States, without Development Banks and Multilateral Financial
Organisms . It should also handle a mechanism for the compensation for
damages to Mother Earth as it is described in paragraph 17 to guarantee
that all countries have the same protection right against the impacts
and to proactively confront climate change.
21. This Fund should assess: the impacts and their costs in the
developing countries and the needs that these impacts derive, register
and monitor the support of developed countries, including the transfer
and development of suitable technologies and the fulfillment of the
funds provision as part of a just compensation.
Equitable opportunities to confront climate change
22. It is recognized that all countries have the same right to
protection against impacts and to proactively confront climate change.
It is inequitable that enormous quantities of resources for protection
are spent in developed countries, whereas to our Peoples the sums that
want to be assigned are minimal, knowing that we are more vulnerable.
23. We admit also that the economic model of development based on the
consumption is originating in the developed countries poor communities
with high levels of vulnerability to climate change, which should be
attended by their own States.
24. It is urgent to strengthen research capacities and the transfer
of environmentally suitable and socially healthy technologies, as well
as the development itself of technologies in and for the developing
countries, to monitor, predict and to assess the impacts of climate
change at all levels. The provision of resources must be undertaken by
the developed countries to cover the totality of these processes and in
particular the development, transfer and adequacy of technologies for
the monitoring of the impacts and of concrete adaptation actions and
measures. Also, these resources must strengthen participatory mechanisms
and processes of prevention and risks reduction of climate disasters
through early warning systems and adaptation at all the levels,
especially towards the most vulnerable sectors. Local stakeholders and
the Peoples must be privileged with analysis of the impacts and
adaptation, for which their knowledge and endogenous capacities must be
25. We recognize the efforts and proper measurements that our Peoples
do for protecting Mother Earth and all forms of life.
A criticism to an irresponsible Accord
26. The “Copenhagen Accord”, imposed over the developing countries by
some States, beyond offering insufficient resources, pretends by itself
divide and confront the Countries for economic resources and to force
them to the actions of adaptation without fully guaranteeing the
necessary resources. Also, they try to grant 10,000 million dollars per
year over next years, although more than 300,000 million dollars per
year are required for adaptation. In the same way, we alert that the
“Accord” claims that funds serve more for mitigation than to confront
the impacts of climate change.
27. This irresponsible “Accord” tries to extort developing countries
conditioning access to adaptation resources in exchange for mitigation
measures. In the same way the “Accord” tries to force developing
countries to adaptation, forgetting that the responsibility of the costs
and expenses are exclusively from the developed countries.
28. Additionally, it is established as unacceptable that in the
processes of international negotiations it is attempted to categorize
the developing countries by their vulnerability to climate change,
generating disputes, inequalities and segregation between them.
29. Unfulfillment by the developed countries to compensate the costs
of impacts and those from the climate change adaptation debt must be
subjected to the climate justice tribunal.
criticized term will be used, for being the category of language used
in the international negotiation. It is also understood that this
development must be a development that means harmony with nature and
with regards to Mother Earth and all the living beings.
This term will be used although it is highly criticized. They are
categories used in the International Negotiation. It is understood that
this development has been achieved following a model of consumption and
production that have been determinant factors in the current crisis of
amount is based on several studies and of different sectors and also
considering studies from different organizations. The financing section
and climate debt has more details respectively.
17. Working Group 16: Strategies
Text from PWCCC.
that all beings are children of Mother Earth, which is not an inert
object, but rather is alive, and being aware that while we are not in
balance with Mother Earth we—people, animals, plants and all beings as a
Bolivia, we declare the world to be in a state of emergency and call on
all world’s peoples and their organizations to mobilize and on
governments to raise awareness and commitment to defend Mother Earth,
adopting a lifestyle in which all walk together and nobody is left
behind, a way of life that offers all to everyone and in which no-one
lacks anythingTherefore resolves to:
- Demand that the governments of developed countries for the
Conference of Parties 16 in Mexico fulfill their first period reductions
obligations established by the Kyoto Protocol and to adopt during the
2nd period, which lasts until 2017, more radical commitments of green
house gas emission gas absorption and reductions by at least 50% within
their territories, based on 1990 levels, so that the increase in global
temperature does not exceed 1 º C. This is essential to ensure the
continuation of life on this planet. We are strongly opposed to carbon
markets and we demand that reductions and other obligations are not
transferred to developing countries.
- Demand that the negotiations in Mexico are transparent, inclusive,
democratic and without imposed documents conditions or blackmail.
Resume the negotiation process from the point it was stopped before
December 2009 in Copenhagen, respecting the previously agreed-upon
working methods and keeping the two working groups.
- Reject the Copenhagen Accord for being a threat to life and to
demand respect for the legal framework of the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol.
- Demand the governments of developed countries “Financing for the
Earth, not for War,” and the transfer of military budgets towards
increaseing financial resources to save the planet and Mother Earth and
to address climate change impacts in Developing Countries
- Demand Climate Justice. developed countries have the obligation to
recognize the climate debt through: the compensation and restitution
for damage and to ensure the return of atmospheric space, as well as
financing and technology transfers to developing countries.
- Denounce the lack of presence of peoples in decision-making
regarding our common future and demand the creation of spaces for
participation of the world’s peoples in making climate change decisions,
including monitoring and oversight of implementation of commitments
made by developed countries.
- Promote the creation of international legal norms that impose
sanctions for infringements and breaches of greenhouse gas emissions
reduction commitments, financing, technology transfer and other
obligations undertaken by developed countries. Also, work towards the
establishment of a Climate Justice tribunal to be the means of enforcing
- Require developed countries respect the rights of migrant
populations created by the effects of climatic change and provide
funding to host and provide compensation on a local, national, regional
and international levels.
- Build a global movement of peoples and social organizations in
defense of life and Mother Earth, based on inclusion of and
complementary coordination among all.
- Organize on local, provincial, national and international levels in
order to defend Mother Earth and Life and curb the effects of climate
- Develop a single mandate from people in order to influence the
- Recovering ancient customs and habits, such as the reconstitution of
calendars to return and restore Mother Earth’s natural cycles
- Promoting organic production and consumption of local organic
- Promoting policies and create incentives for the consumption of
natural local products
- Retrieving and promoting technological matrix of our peoples and
build shared useful knowledge.
- Promoting the creation of a system of barter or exchange of peoples
- Renouncing, as societies overconsumption and waste and combat
- Technological innovation and promoting the development and use of
- Regulating the consumption of imported products.
- Campaigning against companies in our countries and the world that
prey on natural resources such as soil, subsoil and ether. For example:
timber, Coca Cola, etc.
- Promoting the redesign of cities to reduce distances.
- Promoting discussion with our governments to identify policies and
systems that are enemies to life and living well
10. Promote the concept of “Living Well”
and its principles as an alternative to the capitalist system of life
- Recovering ancient customs and habits, such as the reconstitution of
calendars to return and restore Mother Earths natural cycles.
- Promoting organic production and consumption of local organic
- Retrieving and promoting technological matrix of our peoples and
build shared useful knowledge.
11. Promote and strenghthen the
Universal Declaration on the Rights of Mother Earth.
12. Replace the capitalist system for an
alternative model that prioritizes harmony with Mother Earth,
reciprocity, complementary coordination and balance of life rather than
- Promoting the creation of a system of barter or exchange of peoples
- Renouncing as societies, over consumption, and waste and combat
- and promoting the development and use of clean energy.
- Regulating the consumption of imported products.
- Campaigning against companies in our countries and the world that
prey on natural resources such as soil, subsoil and ether. For example:
timber, coca cola, etc.
- Promoting discussion with our governments to identify policies and
systems that are enemies to life and living well.
13. Convoke a 2nd World Summit on
Climate Change and Mother Earth Rights
14. Promote the Global Referendum on
Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth.
a. Urgently move towards the creation of
an alternative World Organization of the peoples: UNO also creating
spaces where peoples’ representatives have full decision-making power.
b. Create an international forum for
continuing education to promote and strengthen the processes of
decolonization, and the collective construction of knowledge, training
and socialization in all areas and levels of life.
PROPOSALS FOR ACTIONS:
- Activate and structure the alternative World Organization of the
Peoples: UNO also create councils to implement the resolutions of the
World Conference of the Peoples on Climate Change and the Rights of
- To mobilize all indigenous peoples, social organizations and civil
society as a whole in defense of Mother Earth and Life.
- Organize 12 global days of the pedestrian and bicycle a year,
reducing car use and creating non-motorized transportation routes.
- Perform concentrations in front of embassies and consulates of the
- Promote a Global March against Annex 1, a day march on all the
embassies in the world.
- Implement in oral, written and televised media the broadcasting of
accurate information on the causes and effects of climate change and its
- Develop debates and seminars and meetings.
- Disseminate and share our reports, proposals and actions by
- Build an international relationship of social movements to implement
We propose to the peoples of the world
that we ensure the compliance of all principles, requirements,
commitments and actions necessary to preserve Life and protect Mother
Earth, using any and all means to this end.
18. Declaration of the "unofficial" "Working Group 18"*: Collective rights and rights of the Mother Earth
National Council of Ayllus and Markas of Qullasuyu
[Text from http://climatejustice.posterous.com/. *The 18th workshop (mesa 18) was organised by some Bolivian social
movements concerned about the impacts of mining and resource extraction
on their environment and critical of the Bolivian government. Conference organisers decided to not include the
group in the list of official working groups.]
This working group established itself as a necessary space of reflection and criticism within the World People's Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of the Mother Earth. Its objective is to give a deeper examination of the local effects of global industrial capitalism. We take on the responsibility of questioning the so-called popular Latin American governments and their destructive and consumerist logic, and the deadly logic of neo-extractive development.
The distinct interventions within this working group have contributed in setting out the contradictions within the process as well as bringing forward proposals in advancing the road to "good living".
The World People's Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of the Mother Earth is a demonstration of the magnetism that has woken up this process. In order to guarantee that this process deepens and extends as an example of hope to the whole continent and the peoples and communities of the world, it is necessary to show the existing contradictions, reflected in social environmental conflicts.
These contradictions are the result of not applying the aforementioned principles. This working group proposes to contribute to active mechanisms of coordinated struggle, through the support of this process.
The social and popular organisations and the original farming ("campesinas") Indigenous communities of Latin America and of the rest of the world met in Tiquipaya, April 20-21, 2010. The process of developing the 18th table brought proposals to define foundations for implementing a New Model of Managing Natural Resources to counter the capitalist production model still prevalent in Latin America, which is situated in industrial development and the consolidation of transnationals, funded in private property, individual gain and consumerism, aspects which have been put to judgement by the nations and the people of Latin America. The development plans of these governments, including the Bolivian government, only reproduce the development model of the past.
To challenge climate change humanity needs to remember its cultural collective communatarian roots -– this means building a society based on collective property and in the communal and rational management of natural resources, where the peoples decide in a direct way the destiny of natural wealth in accordance with their organising structures, their self-determination, their norms and procedures and their vision of how to manage their territories.
History teaches us that there is only one effective way to transform society and to construct a social alternative to capitalism, that is the permanent mobilisation and articulation of our struggles.
We resolve the following:
1. We renounce imperialism, transnationals and the so-called progressive Latin American governments that implement mega energy and infrastructure projects under the IIRSA in any of Latin American territories -– particularly in Indigenous territories and protected areas -– which are designed by banks, businessmen and private builders with a neoliberal and exploitative vision.
2. We demand to change the pseudo development model which privileges the exportation of raw materials. We propose to take forward the construction of alternatives which are in the interest of the peoples, privileging equity, solidarity and complementary.
3. We ask to establish a rational management model of natural resources in accordance with the philosophy, culture, customs and uses of the people, and which bases itself on a social and communitarian model, respectful of the Rights of the Mother Earth.
4. Because of the lack of the will from governments of the world, we demand the power, as social organisations and farmers/peasants, to define a new management model and direct control of natural patrimony. With direct control by the workers from the farm and the city to establish policies of managing biodiversity in relation to necessity and not the dependence of our countries.
5. We ask the states to respect and realise Indigenous rights already accepted by the UN thanks to the fight of the first Indigenous farmers/peasant organisations. We demand the derogation of the legal norms which criminalise our social struggles in defence of our communal territories and that sanction criminal governments.
6. Make public the necessity to eliminate large landowners, the pirating of biodiversity and agrobusiness, and to recuperate ancestral knowledge of the nations and first Indigenous peasants/farmers peoples in the world, the promotion of ecological production, the reproduction of the communitarian model, the training in reproducing forests and biodiversity in an attempt to confront climate change.
7. We demand the retraction and expulsion of all transnationals, of those NGOs which support projects of the aforementioned corporations, and the media that propagandise and violate collective rights. We demand the recuperation of the natural goods that have been devastated and exhausted. We propose the suspension of all extractive activity, work or projects that are responsible and a cause of climate change, the displacement of peoples from their territories, and the environmental social effects in territories of nations and peoples in the world.
8. We demand the fulfillment of collective rights violated in social environmental conflicts in the following cases: Corocoro – Jacha Suyu Pakajaqi, Lliquimuni - Indigenous people of Mosetén - San Cristobal – FRUTCAS Southeast of Potosí - Mutún – Chiquitanía Pantanal, TIPNIS – CONISUR, Cuenca Huanuni, Lago Poopo, Río Desaguadero, Cañadón Antequera, Consejo de Capitanes Guaranis Tarija, Charagua Norte – Asamblea del Pueblo Guaraní de Charagua Norte - represa del Río Madera en Brasil y Bolivia – struggle for common property and land, MST Bolivia and farmer/peasant movement of Córdova, Argentina – Justice for the original Indigenous farmer/peasant community massacred in Porvenir, Pando, the 11 de septiembre of 2008 – mining contamination in Potosí – deforestation and mining in Guarayos – mining in the North of Chichas – cases Andalgalá en Catamarca y San Juan in Argentina – conflicts over forests in Mapuche territories and other national and international cases (see annex - n/a at moment) with which we declare our solidarity in their struggles.
9. All these points make up the mandate of the peoples united at the 18th table -- started by the Council of the Ayullus and Markas of Qullasuyu and other social organisations in the world -- all of which should be fulfilled by all the states that benefit from the goods of the Mother Earth.